The Encomienda System – The Most Abusive And Destructive System In New Spain

Bartolome de las Casas once stated that “Upon this herd gentle sheep, Spaniards descended starving like wolves, tigers and even lions.” Las Casas believed Natives weren’t deserving to be subjected the torment, persecution, and torture they received. Why did the conquistadors think otherwise? Seeking gold to make it easy and quickly. This is a way to increase your social status and spread the doctrine. Spanish settlers brought many traditions and customs to Brazil from Spain when they arrived. The Encomienda, a New Spain custom, was created with the intention of caring for and providing for Native Americans. However, it quickly became one of the most destructive and abusive systems in New Spain.

An encomienda was a gift to a Spaniard. It meant that the encomendero received a piece of land and property rights for a specific Native population. An encomendero would have more than fifty natives included in his encomienda. They would then need to teach one the concepts of Christianity and writing. The Law of Burgos would require this native boy to continue teaching the principles to the natives. Spain and Portugal were a part of Europe and believed that teaching religion was the right thing. Some made risky journeys around the world to spread the gospel of Christ. Las Casas recalls that the Spaniards made Indians slaves and made their work more difficult than they could bear. Some died, while others were left to die. ” The conquistadors came to the island with nothing but the Tupi as their first target. They were even willing to trade with them. The King from Portugal became afraid of the French ships that appeared off Brazil’s coast, until one day. He sent more Portuguese settlers into Brazil to secure his claim on the island. The Portuguese were now in possession of the land they wanted. For the Portuguese, clearing out forest and native land was the only way to settle land. Sugarcane, a crop grown in plantations, was one of those crops that eventually replaced the land. Spanish and Portuguese began enslaving natives and attacking them for manual labor, which was contrary to their success views. Tupi’s were the first to be enslaved to free labor and take their land. This was in stark contrast to their semi-sedentary life style. Chasteen points this out: “Extracting land, labor, and other resources from semi-sedentary forest dwellers was a complete destruction of their society, and they died as a result. The Portuguese enslaved another group, the Tupinambas. This was due to contagion that ran through sugar plantations close by. Francisco Cervantes de Salazar says, “There is no nation more barbarous or so full of flaws than there are some intelligent and virtuous men within it.” The Spanish didn’t just want to Christianize Natives.

Spanish believed that Native Americans weren’t sufficiently educated and too wild to live the Christian lifestyle. The Spanish encomienda system was based on this ethnocentric view. Spanish encomenderos provided education and clothes for Natives. Encomenderos were to pay Natives for their labor and provide them with the necessities of life. Encomenderos asked slaves to pay them tribute as they had previously cared for Natives. The encomenderos didn’t have to visit the encomiendas just for the sake of reducing abuse. Instead, Natives were to pay tribute to the Encomenderos by taking long, strenuous walks.

The Spaniards would often take more than they needed in order to survive, unlike the Natives, who only needed what was necessary. This shows the Spaniards’ greed and how they are willing to work for others to get ahead. Spanish colonists wanted wealth but didn’t want the work required to achieve it. Natives were made to work hard all day, every night. The encomenderos abused them and eventually caused a decline of their population. Many natives died from starvation to satisfy their work quotas. Others would also fail to complete the work requirements and were punished by the Encomenderos. The Spanish Crown finally decided enough was enough, and in the mid-1700s ordered that the colonists from overseas not abuse Native American early Americans. In the meantime, there had been an 18 million Native fatalities due to abuse, leading a huge decline in Natives.

Under the guise Christianity, the Encomienda system allowed overworked Natives to die in fields and mines.

The Biography Of Julius Caesar

Caesar took over the family when he was 16 years old. Recognizing that the priesthood would provide the greatest benefit for his family, Caesar was nominated to become the new High Priest to Jupiter. Sulla the Roman ruler declared his independence and made a concerted effort to purge all of his enemies. Caesar was taken and fled Rome. But his sentence was reduced by the intervention of his mother.

Yet, he was relegated to the priesthood and his wife’s inheritance was taken. Caesar joined army to help his family and provided for his needs. Caesar was an excellent soldier. Caesar was captured by pirates on his way to Greece in 75 CE and taken into captivity. Caesar was treated with kindness and friendship by the pirates, even though he was taken prisoner. They claim that he threatened them with a hunt and execution if he was released. The pirates thought this was a joke. Caesar fulfilled his threat upon Caesar’s release. In a show to show leniency, Caesar had the throats of pirates cut prior to his crucifixion. Caesar’s determination to accomplish what he had promised became his most defining trait throughout his entire life. Julius Caesar, a nobleman’s daughter, married Cornelia in 84 BC. In 76 B.C. they had a child, Julia Caesaris. Cornelia died in 69 BC. Caesar married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla the Roman dictator. The couple’s marriage was short-lived. They divorced in 62 BC. Caesar married Calpurnia, an 18-year-old girl, in 59 BC. Caesarion was also the result of his many affairs with Cleopatra VII.

Caesar returned back to Rome after Sulla was killed. After his army service, Caesar was a military great. He rose quickly in the ranks of the Roman government. He became a friend of powerful men like Pompey the Great or Crassus, the wealthy. Caesar was a gifted speaker and Rome loved his speeches. Julius Caesar became consul when he turned 40. Consul was the highest rank position in Rome’s Republic. Although the consul was similar to a president, there were only two consuls. They also served for a single year. Caesar became governor over the provinces of Gaul in the last year of his consulship.

Rome felt Caesar was overpowering. They feared that Caesar’s rule might end the Roman Republic. They plotted his death. Cassius, Brutus, and Brutus led the plot. Caesar entered Senate on March 15, 44 BC. He was attacked by several men, who then killed him. He was stabbed 23 more times. Caesar was the governor and general of Gaul. Caesar was an effective general and governor. He conquered Gaul. His army showed him respect and honour and he soon became the greatest general in Rome. Conclusion I enjoyed learning about Julius’ life and experiences. I find Ancient Rome fascinating. I can conclude that he was an ancient Roman emperor and initiated the age of the emperor. He is second in importance, Octavian being first. It was a pleasure to research and write about Julius Caesar.

Comic Books In The 21st Century

Comic books are a popular medium for comic book enthusiasts for more than 70 years. Comic books of the 21st century look very different from those that were created nearly 100 years ago. The industry is more mature and the characters are better developed. The villains and superheroes are now more vicious, and their relationship has improved.

Comic books from the 21st century feature more complex stories. Sometimes subplots can be incorporated into the story so that when an unforeseen event occurs, you will be aware. Hollywood is delighted at the sophisticated comic book industry. When a comic book hero is made into a film, mainstream society will devour it. Although there were television series, movies and serials that attempted to portray costumed heroes, they did not do justice. It took some time before technology was able to recreate the comic-book hero. In comic books of the 21st century, readers can read and visualize the story and then view the big-screen version to see if they have the same perspective as you. Even though I thought the movie was wrong, I was often delighted by the experience.

Comic books are also considered to be the demise of superhero characters in the twenty-first century. Heroes can be killed or injured in today’s comic book world. While the demise of a hero doesn’t last very long, it can be a lengthy one in comic books. Writers and artists seek to be realistic, but this is not the case. You feel the death of a character when they die. You feel betrayed. The villain can be resentful but it is temperated by the wisdom of the prevailing heros. They knew what they were doing when they donned the costumes, and the writers and artists were equally attentive. Sometimes you might feel like you were there when it happened. In comic books that include injuries, a scar or other feature is added.

As the years passed, comic books changed the look of heros. While characters are not generally affected by age, some have seen their looks change. The comic book industry also changed the appearance of the characters. Another artist may have taken over the role of villain or hero. Maybe a refresh was required because his or her hairstyle or costume looked out-of-place. Many characters have lost their identity over the years.

No matter what the case, comic books will continue to evolve. I am glad that comic books have been updated to avoid stagnation. Comic books of the 21st century are what keep me reading them. As a boy, I was captivated by comic books and would read them in bed. As an adult, I still find myself captivated by them. The messages may be different in content and design, but they are the same.

Credit Mobilier Scandal During The Gilded Age

Mark Twain, an American writer who called 19thcentury America “the Gilded Age”, was influential. This was a reference to the fact that the period was corrupt beneath the surface. Many events took place during this “Gilded Age”, such as the Panic in 1873, the Pullman strike and many more. The Credit Mobilier Scandal was one of the many events that took place during this period. This was one event that Twain called the “Gilded Age” due to many reasons.

The Credit Mobilier Scamal was a scheme by the Union Pacific Railroad to bribe federal legislators in return for business favors. Around the 1860s, Union Pacific Railroad was given the responsibility of building a transcontinental railway. Union Pacific’s corporate leaders had the idea of creating a dummy company to divert public funds to their benefit. Union Pacific Railroad stockholders set up a credit mobilier of America company and presented the contracts for the construction of the railroad. Union Pacific representatives had made secret deals with federal lawmakers. The Credit Mobilier company offered stock to congressmen in exchange for a share of the public funds that would be transferred through it. The congressmen also gave the company many land grants and nice subsidies from the government in exchange for stock options. Twain said that the period was corrupted underneath. The fact that both Credit Mobilier’s congressional stockholders and the Union Pacific got rich because of this occurred is proof of this. Each side got what it wanted. The scandal, which harmed many Gilded Age politicians, impacted America politically at that time. The scandal broke because of the obvious exchange of favors. This scandal was discovered by Congress, who conducted an investigation and brought all of the information to public attention. Oakes Ames of Massachusetts was censured, while James Brooks of New York was also censured. In addition to this, the scandal also ended the careers and political lives of Henry Wilson, James A. Garfield, as well as Schuyler Kolfax, who was left as vice president. The scandal showed how corruption corrupted Gilded Age politics. It also revealed just how far railroads, other economic interests would go in order to maximize profits.

Historical Interpretation Of The Causes Of The French Revolution

The Marxist explanation of the French Revolution’s origins wasn’t widely accepted until 1960. This interpretation was used to view the revolution as the result of a classic Marxist struggle by a rising class. In France, this was the time when wage earners were disillusioned. It was also evident that they had growing economic power which was not possible to reflect under the constraints of the Old Regime. Albert Soboul recognized the importance lower classes in 1968’s publication, ‘The Sans-Culottes. It stated that life was difficult in the peasantry due to poor harvests in 1787-1789. The Assembly of the Notables (February 22nd, 1789) shows how the bourgeoisie failed to exert any influence on France’s financial system. The Controller of General Finances, Charles Calonne, then urged tax exempts to accept financial reform to help France’s dire financial situation. However they refused. Many historians believe France could have climbed the economic ladder had his proposals been accepted. However, France did not have representation from the 2nd estate or the third estate. This was because the nobility wanted what was best for their country and not for France as a whole.

Because Marxist history is correct, it recognizes how the bourgeoisie was dissatisfied with the Ancien Regime’s limitations and led them to challenge the monarchy. This interpretation is especially credible because of the rapid growth in urban population in the period leading up to the revolution. By 1989, there were approximately 30 French towns with a population exceeding 150,000. The major problem with Marxist interpretations is their oversimplification. They claim that the causes for the revolution were due solely to this factor. George Taylor, a revisionist historian says that the interpretation has been ‘interred at the graveyard for lost paradigms assassinated with critical research’. This is widely believed to be true by many. Revisionists challenged this view by pointing out that some enlightened elites ‘actively supported France’s political, economic and modernisation’ and were aligned with the wishes of the bourgeoisie and not in opposition. Revisionists also believe that the post-revolutionary revolution was not caused by class conflict. They claim that noblemen won over the bourgeoisie. Alfred Cobban, a historian, stated that history’s change is not the result of clearly defined class interests. His interpretation does much to discredit Marxist views, but it is not original enough to counter them. It instead denigrates Marxist views and doesn’t offer any other alternative. This is contrary to what the New Revisionist interpretation tends to do. It focuses on political facts to explain the French Revolution’s causes. This is why Post-Revisionisms do not only focus on political processes, institutions, or policies’ but also on the ’emergency of distinctive policies and the emergence of new types and conflicts of politicians, organisations, and other cultural factors’. This interpretation may be the best of all historical views, since it acknowledges that the primary factor responsible for the French Revolution is political change through many socio-economic factors. Mona Ozouf, a historian noticed a link between the Ancien Regme’s death and the rise public opinion. ‘There was never public opinion in Louis XIV’s time. Instead, the royal brilliance outshone it. The same thing happened when the public opinion was king. It made it impossible for the royal to exercise any authority. The revolution was triggered by changing public opinion. However, the Enlightenment is highlighted in this study.

This recent interpretation is certainly more useful than the others. However, it does not fully reflect the impact financial ruin in France had on the political changes which led to France’s revolution.

Given these facts, the post revisionist thought emerges as the most useful in reflecting upon the causes of France’s Revolution. It is because it allows you to look at the revolution from both a political and economic perspective.