The Context Of The History In Frankenstein

“Art without a matrix or culture is impracticable…it is impossible without history”

Stephen Cox’s comment expresses the poststructuralist viewpoint that meanings of texts always stem from their context. Frankenstein, Mary Shelley’s novel, is a clear example of her historical context. Shelley’s novel Frankenstein is set after the Religious Reformation, Industrial Revolution, the Age of Enlightenment and even Feminism. Shelley’s Creature provides her readers with the best perspective on society’s injustices and problems. Judith Halberstam suggests that the Creature may be interpreted as Mary Shelley herself. It is a symbol of class struggle, industrialization, and all social struggle. The Creature helps to highlight current issues by illustrating how the historical context of Frankenstein is expressed in the novel.

Religion is the first significant context that shaped Frankenstein. The nineteenth century witnessed significant changes in attitudes and beliefs towards religion, following the advent of Protestantism, as well as the Age of Enlightenment. The French Revolution was an important force behind these changes. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen had enabled religious and civil freedom. In the early 19th century, people were looking for philosophical answers that didn’t come from religious institutions. They also questioned traditional dogma. Frankenstein’s central theme of challenging God’s role as Creator, is an example of this questioning. This theme underpins Frankenstein’s egocentric quest to find man-made procreation. Shelley is however deeply critical. Frankenstein was addressed by the Creature. These allusions make Frankenstein seem like a spiteful, irrational creature. Shelley’s view is strongly influenced by Shelley’s view that Frankenstein represents a dangerous challenge to accepted order of life, God’s only Creator, and God’s unique role in it.

This is further supported in the 1818 edition’s preface. It begins with a Paradise Lost quotation: “Did he ask thee Maker/ To mould me man?” Did I solicit you/ From darkness for me to prosper?– Shelley uses this to establish the beginning idea of his novel. Shelley is likely to be interested in exploring the idea that man may possess the ability to create life and not just God.

Shelley appears to be using the Creature to show the revolutionary audience – an audience that questions the church doctrine – the devastating effects of confronting family acceptance of religions, including God’s role, in order to promote science and technology that eventually leads to society’s destruction. Shelley appears to be directly opposing the challenges of conformist Christianity. Shelley’s criticisms regarding a society questioning the natural order and life’s consequences are quite plausible. Again, she uses her critiques of the Creature through Frankenstein. It is human society – God created civilisation – that makes the Creature into an evil monster.

Shelley’s critiques and worries about science’s destructive consequences are closely related to all this. These worries were common at the time, both after the development Erasmus Darwin’s theories and The French Revolution. Norton Garfinkle says that “when The French Revolution raised concerns about an anarchistic society built upon an atheistic science,” religious opinions began to fear the social consequences. The novel presents the tragic story of a scientist’s scientific project. However, it is also visible in certain details.

Humphry Daavy, Luigi Galvani, and Adam Walker, all modern scientists, explored the possibility of manipulating the universe by human interference. Shelley explains the dangers involved in this technique through his novel. Tim Marshall points out that cadavers were more in demand as medical technology advanced. Marshall mentions a ‘Patent Coffin’ that was registered in 1817 before Frankenstein was published. While this was intended to provide easy access to the afterlife, it also pointed out the lucrative market for grave robbing. Anne Mellor notes that Frankenstein’s introductions to chemical biology at the University of Ingolstadt are based on Davy’s famous lecture titled “An Introduction to Chemistry.” All of this supports Shelley’s awareness of new science and scientific methods, which suggests that she considers the possible outcomes of Frankenstein.

Shelley criticizes contemporaneous ideas, practices, once more. Shelley also uses the incredibly ironic phrase “a Godlike Science” to describe Frankenstein’s feelings about his creation of the Creature. This only adds to the cruelty of this kind scientific project. Many readers will immediately see the inhumanity of such an endeavor. Frankenstein is unable to see that he has crossed moral and acceptable boundaries. Shelley’s potential fate may mirror that of her own society, which continues science development and discredits religion to a certain extent. Shelley, however, shows the destructive nature and hubris of Frankenstein’s evil microcosm. Shelley refers to Frankenstein’s (and her macrocosm) punishment for taking the light of reason, or manipulative scientific knowledge, from the gods.

Frankenstein illustrates two other important contexts. Shelley’s novel was written in 1833, which meant that feelings of white supremacy and slavery were still strong.

Britain sought to expand her empire by competing with other nations, which led to a stronger sense of racial superiority. “Eugenicists” believed that people with disabilities would reduce racial and national competition and could therefore improve their ability to selectively breed. It became more common for disabled people to be sterilized or placed in institutions. Frankenstein’s intolerant attitudes to the Creature are a reflection of current attitudes regarding foreigners. Shelley uses the Creature’s rejection and mistreatment to gain sympathy from the audience and magnify prejudices in her social context by using him to highlight the persecution of the persecuted. The Creature’s statement that he was the “monster that I am” is an example of this.

The Creature tells the story and the Creature sees the events through his eyes. It allows the reader to understand his human nature and compassion. By referring to himself as a monstrous being, the reader is able to see that his rejections are actually from humans. Frankenstein is blind to the Creature’s suffering because he feels superior and has an intolerant view of all things ‘queer. This is reinforced by the fact that the Creature’s tale allows the reader to feel and understand the Creature’s pain. The Creature is trying to teach the modern reader the same lessons he learned. Shelley is trying to demonstrate that humans, through greed and selfishness, are not enlightened when it comes to equality. After studying several books from the De Lacy household, the monster asked: ‘Was mankind, indeed, simultaneously so powerful, virtuous and majestic, yet so viciously und base?’ This questioning of ideology leaves Shelley with a poignant and relevant question.

English society in the first century was markedly marked by racial, physical, and ignorant prejudices. It was also markedly marked by ignorance regarding sexuality and certain taboos. Michel Foucault’s’repression hypothesis” highlights this. Foucault asserts that sexuality has been a taboo topic in society. He warns us that it is difficult to talk about sex without taking a different position: We are conscious of challenging established power. Frankenstein’s implicit homosexuality in her novel defies all conventions. Shelley even presents sexual repression. It is possible to argue that Frankenstein’s attempts to create life were motivated by homosexual fantasies.

Halberstam suggests Frankenstein’s reclusiveness in his attempts to create life, followed by his refusal to allow the Creature-to-mate to be born, is indicative of his sexual pursuits and the underlying homoerotic tension. She suggests that Frankenstein’s plan to create a ‘being like him’ is a combination of masturbatory as well as homosexual desires. Frankenstein actually feels ‘delight, rapture’ while creating his’man. Frankenstein’s creation and subsequent sex relationship could be interpreted as Frankenstein’s attempt to discover his sexuality, which is often hidden or not acknowledged in society. Shelley may be engaging with her society’s sexual taboo, though it is veiled. Shelley also criticizes such sexual projects and desires, warning readers that the result of such a curious person, or society, are the unleashing a monster in the world.

The consequences of unleashing such a monster are not limited to the individual. Anne Mellor notes that Frankenstein’s love affair with his monster indicates an implicit desire in him to create a race and a genderless world. Shelley uses Shelley’s implicit desire of man to illustrate how a world that does not have women will lead to destruction, misery, and freedom for new ideas, such as exploration of sexuality and human reproduction.

Frankenstein’s final historical context is the gender norms and women’s role. The novel has a strong theme of the passive nature of women. The only purpose of all female characters is to be victimized and used. Frankenstein views Elizabeth in submissiveness and says of her: “I considered Elizabeth my own – mine to cherish, love, and protect.” She was praised so much that I made her my possession. Yet, he continues to fail to protect her. Justine, who is also presented, states that she is innocent of her own insubordination and passivity. I am not pretending that my protestations should excuse me. Instead, I trust the facts and rest my innocence.

In the end, she is just another victim of women and does not fight for justice. She is only there for the purpose of being framed. Shelley also describes her silence during Lord Byron’s 1831 preface. These aspects are typical of the attitude toward women in this time period. These aspects reflect the traditional views of women in patriarchal culture at this time. Shelley’s mother Mary Wollstonecraft wrote her Vindication for the Rights Of Woman (1792), which discusses the women’s situation. Shelley was left with resonating questions about gender roles. This led to Frankenstein’s exploration of women’s procreation roles. Shelley’s novel suggests that society and families are ruined by the complete inaction of women when it comes procreation. Frankenstein’s male counterpart in the role of female reproducer is not only an aberrant behavior, but it also results in an aberration.

It is possible that Shelley’s male-centric novel suggests she resents the biological roles of the female sexes and not her submission to men’s superiority. Ellen Moers refers to Frankenstein as a “female birth myth”, which suggests Shelley’s incontinence about maternity. This plot, which revolves around the intervention of man in procreation, suggests that there is some resentment about women having to give birth. Also, it is the responsibility of women to nurture and care for their child. Shelley lost her mother in childbirth and had miscarriages. Shelley made the Creature a metaphor for satire misogyny. William Duff said that women were’monsters’, not just human but not animal. Mary Wollstonecraft is the hyena in the petticoats’ as she broke the natural and proper limits for a women’s rights announcement. Shelley uses this Creature to decry these insolences. Shelley’s most ambivalent views are about women. Frankenstein, however, does indeed reflect modern views.

We can see that Shelley used the Creature in order to expose the dangers of modern ideas. It is an effective way of presenting the novel’s historical context. Shelley is critical of the Creature’s current discourses and attitudes, as well as those that relate to religion, science (racial/physical), sexuality, and gender. Frankenstein is a poststructuralist who believes that texts are always connected to circumstances, time, place, society.


BFI, Unspecified author, ‘The History of Attitudes to Disabled People’ [accessed 8.05.12]

Stephen Cox is quoted by Mark Tully in No Full Stop in India (London, Penguin Group, 1991), page 58.

Duff. William. Jenny Newman cites Duff. Lucie Armitt (London: Routledge, 1991), p. 87

Foucault Michael. The History of Sexuality. Robert Hurley (London/New York: Penguin Books. 1978).

Gagnier. Regenia. Subjectivities. History of Self Representation in Britain, 1832-1920. New York: Oxford University Press. 1991. P. 8.

Norton Garfinkle. Science and Religion, England, 1790-1800. Critical Response to the Work of Erasmus. Journal of the History Ideas Vol. 16, No. 3, June 1955 (Pennsylvania University Press, 1955), P. 377.

Halberstam Judith. “Making Monsters” Skin Shows: Gothic Horrors and the Technology of Monsters. Durham NC: Duke WP, 1995. p. 29.

The History of Birth Control, written by Kathleen London, offers an in-depth look at the practices and history of contraception. The Yale Newhaven Teacher’s Institute provides educational opportunities to instructors. Retrieved 10/05/2012 from

Marshall, Tim. “Frankenstein and 1832 Anatomy Act” In Gothick Origins and Innovations. Allan Lloyd Smith (Amsterdam; Atlanta, Rodopi, 1994), pages. 57-64.

Mellor, Anne Chapter 6 in Mary Shelley’s Life, Her Fiction, and Her Monsters (New York, Methuen 1988), pp. 115-26.

Mellor Anne K.: Frankenstein: A Feministcritique of Science (1987).” in One Culture. Essays in Science and Literature. George Levine (Madison University: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1987), page 288.

Moers Ellen, “Female Gothic”, The Endurance of Frankenstein. Ed. George Levine (Berkeley Los Angeles, London: University of California Press in 1979), p.

Rose, Ellen Cronan. “Custody Battles.Reproducing Knowledge about Frankenstein” in New Literary History Vol. 26, No. John Hopkins University Press published an article in Autumn 1995, which was reported on page 811.

Said Edward The World and the Critic (Harvard University Press Cambridge Massachusetts 1983), P. 35.

Shelley (Great Britain: Penguin Group 1995)

A&P By John Updike: Sammy And Queenie Character Analysis

John Updike’s short story “A&P” explores the theme reality. The story centers on Sammy, a nineteen-year old grocery store worker. Queenie is a beautiful young girl. Sammy sees her as attractive and she entices Sammy to make an opportunistic decision. Unfortunately, it ends badly for him. His entire life is turned upside-down. Updike shows Sammy’s disloyalty, impulsivity and thoughtlessness in “A&P.”

Sammy’s choice to choose Queenie’s physical appearance, and her initial impression that she is a sweetheart, can be seen as typical of a young boy. Sammy said, “I’m not going to quit Lengel fast enough to make them hear…their undiscovered hero.” Sammy is clearly trying to impress girls with his decision to quit. He is unable to think clearly and this makes the likely consequences of him making this decision more difficult. You can see his disloyalty in leaving behind a job that was meaningful to his family. Lengel, his store manager is also there. Lengel, the store manager. Updike’s Sammy says that it is fatal to abandon a gesture once it has been initiated. Queenie’s friends and Sammy end up leaving. Sammy then realizes that his decision of quitting was futile. Lengel tries then to get Sammy to give up by reminding Sammy about the feelings of his parents. Sammy realises that Lengel is correct and that he is feeling guilty, but his pride is not allowing him to change his decision. He accepts that he made a gesture for the “my girls” and that it was wrong. Sammy has become irritable and it is starting to show in his behavior. Sammy makes the right decisions and realizes that Queenie’s initial task was not a success. Sammy says that he felt the pain of the future. Sammy quit, and Sammy came to terms with the things he had done. Sammy looks around the shop and sees Lengel performing Sammy’s work. Sammy is caught between his secure, comfortable past and his uncertain, spurned future. Sammy’s unconsciousness is revealed when he realizes his true intentions. However, he was not trying to harm anyone or himself. His abrupt decision-making has lead him to an unnoticed, conclusively unemployed place. Readers will be able to see Sammy’s personality traits as impulsive, disloyal, and thoughtless through the eyes of Updike. Sammy ends up homeless and invisible to Queenie, her friends and family. This shows readers and Sammy how one choice can ultimately impact your future. Sammy’s hidden talents can be seen by those who judge him based only on their first impressions.

Biographical Discourse Of Krakauer’s ‘Into The Wild’

There are many similarities in the content of biographies. There are many differences in the features of these biographies that make them different from each other. These conventions are used to enhance the reader’s enjoyment. This is all done exceptionally well in Jon Krakauer’s biography Into the Wild. Krakauer tells the story of Chris McCandless’ liberating journey through North America. It is told in a disjointed but compelling timeline. Krakauer uses original sources to create his biography. He also includes an explanation of his personal life experiences in each chapter to enrich the reader’s reading experience.

The book follows biographical conventions in that it retraces Chris’ steps using original sources. Krakauer 3, for example, is able to recall Gallien’s first encounter with Chris McCandless as a hitchhiker. Krakauer is required by law to interview Chris’s family and friends in order for him to have more credibility as a biographer. Krakauer also refers to Chris McCandless’s writings and includes his journals and letters throughout the entire book. Krakauer, for instance, includes Wayne Westerberg’s letter in which Chris mentions his arrival in Yukon Territory. He declares that “I now enter the wild” (3). Krakauer uses the title quote in the beginning chapter. This echoes Chris’ bold tone and creates a dark, foreboding atmosphere for the rest. Krakauer’s usual use of primary sources to collect information for his biography enriches both the reader’s enjoyment and also his credibility as an author. Krakauer places the title quote at the beginning of the first chapter. Most notably, maps are placed before chapters start. For example, the map that appears before chapter 9 depicts the area surrounding Davis Gulch at the border of Arizona and Utah (86). This map allows readers to visualize the contents of the chapter and gives them a sense of Chris’ journey. The map is not the only thing that Krakauer uses to start each chapter. He also includes epigraphs from Chris and other writers to complement any image Krakauer has aligned with it. Everett Ruess is the one who emphasizes this. He writes in a letter (87) that he “asks when I will see civilization, it may not be soon…I do not tire of the wilderness, but I rather enjoy its beauty. This refreshing departure from the standard paragraphs that describe Chris’ story and other books adds to the reader’s curiosity. The letter also juxtaposes Everett Ruess’ philosophies and ventures. They were both influenced by transcendentalist beliefs, approximately sixty years apart. Krakauer wanted to illustrate the message and subject matter of the chapter. He also wanted to let readers draw their own conclusions about Chris’ uniqueness and compare the adventures between them. This book’s minor differences in structure and genre, which almost resembles a written documentary about Chris is what adds to the reader’s fascination and retention throughout.

Krakauer’s evident authorial bias also deviates from standard biographical conventions. Krakauer even dedicates chapters to discussing his own personal experiences. Krakauer makes a blatant confession in the Author’s Note: “I won’t claim that I am an impartial biographer” explaining how he was personally affected by Chris’ story. It made it impossible to “dispassionately render the tragedy possible”. He is honest about his admiration and bias towards Chris and establishes trust with his readers by being open about it. Two chapters in the book deal with Krakauer’s connection to Chris. This unusual convention allows readers to see Krakauer’s authorial view of Chris’ story. It focuses on Krakauer’s personal connection to Chris and their experiences in the wildernesses. This second distinction provides readers with an additional perspective of Chris McCandless, the book and Krakauer.

Many conventions can be used in different biographies or other books with similar genres. They each have their own distinctive features and conceptually overlap with others. Jon Krakauer uses biographical conventions to tell Chris’ story across North America in Into the Wild. Jon Krakauer creates an intriguing and compelling biography of Chris using conventions. These include using primary sources for information, formulating unique chapters, and including personal experiences that he shares with Chris McCandless.

Rebirth And Self-discovery In The Color Purple, The Sound And The Fury, And Crow: From The Life And Songs Of The Crow

The Colour Purple was written by Alice Walker in 1982. This is because of the appearance Feminist writers during the 1970s when certain gender issues weren’t being suppressed in a patriarchal society. This allowed individuals to have more freedom in the cultural legacy of both Black communities and the Feminist movement. The drive for selfhood and intellectual awareness grew. The second text I chose is The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner, published in 1929. The novel tells the story of a Southern American family who are “on their way to dusty deaths” due to their involvement and participation in the North’s distorted politics and social struggles. The Sound and the Fury can be divided into three parts. Benjy, an 18-year-old man with a severe psychological illness, is the first to see the story. Crow: The Life and Songs of the Crow (1970), Ted Hughes used Crow the quasihuman human figure to examine the human soul and his themes of birth and death. Hughes believed that folk-mythology was incomplete without a Shamanic journey into the Underworld. This is what Hughes created in his work. Crow was Hughes’s first collection of poems. It was here that he created a complex folk mythology, based on Shamanism. Crow features a hero character who searches for answers and an imperfect God.

Celie Walker’s character narrates her personal story in an epistolary way. This allows for self revelation and also provides an intellectual process to understand herself and reality. The style is similar to Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man or William Wells Brown’s Clotel. J. Hollands wrote that this “enables you to witness the birth and development of very private writing”. He cited the example of Celie’s first line, where she changed “I am” to “I Have” and the use of the present form to replace the “I was” form. Celie’s alienation from God is demonstrated by Celie writing letters to God. “…longest I can spell G.O.D. Walker doesn’t give her protagonist any surname. This removes her sense of self and intensifies her need for contact with all people willing to help her. Faulkner portrays Benjy (the mentally disabled Compson child) as a modern Christlike figure, which mirrors the ineptness, irony and despair evident in the desperate relationship between young people and God. Caddy is shown Benjy as a potential savior. A man half the age of Jesus, yet part of a generation that slowly tarnishes the family’s name with moral decay. Faulkner portrays the new Christ as an image that would allow for the restoration and renewal, especially of Caddy. Benjy is shown crying over Caddy as he wears perfume. This symbolises the immorality Caddy’s unwed child birth. Crow is similar in that Hughes’ use and recreation of the Genesis story and Biblical language redefine God. This gave Crow the opportunity to learn humanity and change his animalistic, amoral nature. Each of the three protagonists developed a sense for themselves through contact with God. Benjy, Celie, and Crow, through their attempts to imitate God’s work, became substitutes for previously “unworthy” religious figures. Faulkner’s narrative also includes images from the busiest day on the Christian Calendar. The structure of The Sound and the Fury revolves around the Easter Week. It allows the author to explore spiritual possibilities within his characters, including Dilsey. Faulkner portrays Dilsey’s experiences of spiritual renewal as parallels to Reverend Shegog’s unorthodox but powerful Easter sermon. Accordingly, the Easter event relevant to this novel’s plot is sacrament. This isn’t an instantaneous rebirth, but rather a gradual process of awakening. Crow’s enlightenment takes place over time, as evidenced in “Crow Communes”, a short poem that might be a parody of the Christian Eucharist. Hughes calls Crow a “hierophant” because he was caught trying to eat a piece God to gain Divine knowledge and power. Crow is “blasted” and dies in “Truth Kills Everybody.” Hughes also describes Crow as a “hierophant” because he was caught eating a piece of God to gain Divine knowledge and power.

Celie’s character is, in contrast, more passively and slowly realizing spirituality. Richard Yarborough, a Critic, stated that Celie’s decision to write to Nettie instead of God was a significant moment in her psychological maturation. Celie should not be freed by this single action. Celie’s character was still subject to domestic abuse years after the “dissolution” which suggested that any form or rebirth would be after the end of the mental and physical trauma. Celie would feel more at ease if Shug Avery’s relationship with Celie becomes sexual. Celie has the greatest emotional stability at this stage. Walker makes Celie feel more self-aware and more individual. Celie signs her letters now, signing ironically “Amen” on letters addressed to Nettie while signing “God Bless You!” on others. This transition from a metaphysically created “God”, into a receptive, human substitute for God also results in a change in the narrative tone.

Hughes shows that death and life are interrelated in Crow’s spiritual rebirth. Crow Tyrannosaurus makes this clear: “Creation quaked vocals…a cortege de mourning, lament” indicates that Crow must first overcome the absurd duality trap and “try to be the light.” Crow could be seen as a pilgrim on the path to enlightenment. Crow appears to be in a paradoxical state of being “roots breaking out of the bedrock-atom” (Valerie Smith, 1987). Smith’s perspective is valid because the majority of the actions in “A Kill” are immediate and within Crow’s reach. It is important that Crow realizes that Hughes has taken control of Crow’s psyche, and therefore his body. This spiritual duality is reinforced by “Crow’s Fall’s” depiction of black and his white counterparts as mutually exclusive. Crow is described in “Crow’s Fall” as once being white. However, by fighting the white sunlight, he turns into black. Hughes suggests this spiritual duality cannot be overcome unless Crow can see the opposing opposites as mutually dependent.

The theme of duality in life and death runs through both my novels. It’s shown in The Sound and the Fury via the division between morality and ethics and in The Color Purple using color symbolism, which is a similar technique as Crow. Faulkner portrays Compson as unsure of the issue. But, because of his “self-absorbed but destructive belief in himself being able to control all things that contribute to his demise,” (Robert Butler, 1998). These events include the loss of the social ideals of feminine purity by his daughter Caddy. Jason’s greed and intellect-destroying nature are manifested in Benjy’s inability or inability of seeing the connection between immorality and morality. He is unable to overcome old sins and rebirth into spiritual freedom. The Color Purple Walker, however, introduces gradually brighter colors throughout the novel to signify the chronology that depicts various characters’ renewals, rebirths and liberation. Celie is first shown this in The Color Purple Walker’s novel. Celie has limited color options for Celie’s new gown. She then chooses a bright yellow material from Shug’s previous dresses to make her quilt. Shug, who is described by June Lawrenson, as “a revelationatory figure…the key holder to Celies emotional and Spiritual maturity”, is associated to the color purple. I consider Shug to be an “revelation figure” in Celie’s and other women’s lives. Shug helps Celie to develop a strong sense and self-esteem. He also acts as an advocate for women trapped in the 1930s’ oppressive black female lifestyle. Modernist literature often celebrates the idea that rebirth can be found in destruction and that new creation can arise from that destruction. A quote from Timothy Bewes shows this in “The Waste Land”, which is a reconstruction of the meaning of history. “These fragments I have shored against mine ruins …”,” Shug says.

Faulkner says that the potential to regenerative effects of time can’t be objectively understood but is only accessible for human interaction. Benjy, despite not having any concept of time, is shown to have a mental condition that allows him see links between the past and the present. Quentin on the other hand is unable to escape time. His futile attempts to stop the clock only make him more dependent on the cycle of destruction and not the renewal that comes from it. This eventually leads to him taking his own life. Hughes, by contrast, is much more involved than Quentin in the world’s pain. Hughes uses Faulkner’s destructive time cycle to help him come to terms and accept his own experience. The “seven-year honeymoon” mentioned in the poem “Crow Improves” could be a reference to Hughes’ marriage with Sylvia Plath which lasted from 1956 to 1963. Plath-Hughes marriage had a turbulent history. Events surrounding Plath’s suicide, such as Hughes’ affair and refusal to discuss the circumstances surrounding Plath’s passing, made him look like a murderer to many Plath sympathizers. The “seven-year honeymoon,” which Hughes and Hughes shared, only serves to reinforce their marital problems. Hughes comes to similar conclusions as Faulkner’s Quentin. If the “machine guns” on his consciousness can be dissuaded, then escaping the “marchoftime” is their only option. Critic David King says that Hughes’ “retreat from the situation [is] a necessary component of artistic detachment” and allows for the gradual acceptance of horrible events. This is a progression from the time “he sat crying” over the dark side of life to the moment “he started to laugh.”

Celie’s involvement to the cycle time further oppresses her, and Walker’s narrative is confined to her internalisations about her disturbing private life. Walker’s narrative style is an extended inner monologue. Celie is initially made to feel depersonalized because of the extreme life circumstances she is faced with, such as the incest and loss of her children. I follow the instructions. But I am alive.” It is important to remember that Celie was freed from such extreme circumstances by the passing of time. This suggests that survival can lead to rejuvenation. Faulkner, along with his contemporaries, believed that the past was unalterable and that it “a burden that deeply affects the present deeply”. Faulkner closed The Sound and the Fury by describing the dark tone of Modernist thought. Hughes, however, chose to end Crow by returning to the theme of the quest for spiritual rebirth. Keith Sagar says that Crow is Everyman who won’t acknowledge that the Black Beast, all that he hates, fears, and is afraid of, is inside him.

Walker’s voice of Celie and other Black women was not only an important step towards liberation but, along with Faulkner Hughes, he also articulated an in-depth understanding about spiritual independence, making it possible to make the leap from the specific to the universal. This trio’s portrayal and analysis of incidental events transformed spiritual and emotional freedom in the twenty-first century.

Works citées

Smith, Valerie. Harvard University Press 1987.

Butler, Robert. “Contemporary African-American Fiction: A Journey Through Time”. Associated University Presses published a book in 1998.

Lawrenson, June. Lecture: Women and Afro-American Literature. Truro, 2/8/11.

Hollands J. Lecture : Identity, Stereotypes & Silence Falmouth, 14/3/11.

Yarborough, Richard. “The First-Person of Afro-American Fiction.” Chicago University Press first published in 1989.

Bewes, Timothy. Lecture: Elements of Modernism as a Literary Style in America. During a lecture at Roehampton University in 2002, the speaker discussed the importance of understanding the context of an individual’s life when considering their behaviours. They argued that it is essential to look at the environment and experiences that have shaped an individual in order to gain insight into why they behave in certain ways.

King, David. Essay: From the Songs and Life of the Crow, a Description and Defense of Ted Hughes'”Crow”. In the fall of 2007.

Pointer, Lucas. Essay: The Burdens and History of American Literature in the Twentieth Century. In 1999.

Rhetorical Figures And Means Of Expression In Julius Caesar

The tragic play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare shows the contrast between power and honor in leadership positions. Many individuals strive to improve Rome through their own visions of national glory. Brutus and his supporters believe that Julius Caesar wasn’t an honorable ruler of Rome. They then kill him to gain their country’s benefit. Marc Antony opposes Brutus. He is a strong advocate Caesar’s rule. Both men make speeches about Caesar’s ruling, but Antony’s stronger message pits Roman citizens and conspirators against Brutus. Shakespeare used paralipsis first in Caesar’s reign by showing Antony mocking the conspirators. Antony uses rhetorical questioning and repetition of Brutus as an honorable man to cleverly blame Brutus. Shakespeare uses a variety altruistic and deceptive diction techniques to portray Antony’s speech to be superior to Brutus’. He relates to Roman citizens’ sympathies rather than their nationalism.

Brutus was reluctant to allow Antony to speak on Caesar’s funeral. Antony was asked only by Brutus not to speak negatively about the conspirators. Antony managed to evade his limitations in oratory and he is now able to ask for more. Antony claims that he first came to bury Caesar, not praise him. He did this to peacefully show his connection and honor Caesar ceremoniously (III.ii.73). Antony’s pretentious cordiality is not the truth. His motives are to revenge Caesar and he continues his praise for him regardless. Paralipsis is used in Antony’s misleading diction to subtly draw attention to Caesar’s positive rule. Antony initially presents himself as a loyalist to Brutus’ limitations. He then pretends to be loyal to improve his speech and to inspire citizens to follow his rightful ideals. Antony’s subtly used diction enhances the ethos, causing citizens to feel sympathy for Antony. Antony’s speech doesn’t promote patriotism of Rome like Brutus. Rather, it focuses on individual sentiments and encourages crowds to follow Caesar’s example. Antony’s emphasis upon Roman emotions is supported by Shakespeare when he reveals that he “speaks[s] not in order to disprove the words of Brutus, but…to express what [he] knows” (III.ii99-100). Shakespeare uses paralipsis again to distract attention from Antony’s continued opposition to Brutus’ methods. The author uses logos when referring to Caesar’s control over Brutus to influence both their minds and hearts. People are more inclined to follow people who give back. Antony’s diction can be described by the author as both benevolent but deceitful. While his morals lie at improving Rome, his motivations are to oppose Brutus’ rule in order to avenge Caesar’s death. Antony’s ability of evading Brutus’ restrictions helps to relate to citizens’ needs because the central focus is on Caesar’s past achievements. Antony later focuses on Brutus’ presumed honor to demonstrate the contrast between Caesar who was a good ruler and Brutus who was misguided. Antony focuses heavily on Brutus’ presumed honor to backhandedly mock Brutus’ morals which are different than Caesars. Antony repeats the claim that “Brutus’ honorable man” to feign loyalty towards the conspirators (III.ii.82). Antony’s repetition of diction is used by the author to show that it does not mean what it implies. Antony concoctively puts the blame for Brutus’ alleged failures on society by portraying him consistently as honorable and then complimenting him. Shakespeare uses the contrast of Brutus’s honor and his wicked actions to persuade people towards the more obvious evil, murder. Antony is a better choice than Brutus, who promotes ideals of nationalism. Shakespeare uses ethos for Antony. This is because the public views Brutus’ honor as clear, but they also see Caesar to be giving. They feel a sense of loss and are eager to have Caesar’s posthumously administered materialistic possessions. Antony asserts that Caesar “was [his] friend…fidel and just to [him], but Brutus claims he [his] ambition”, thus establishing a contrast between Caesar’s benevolent rules and Brutus’ sudden death (III.ii.84-85) Shakespeare compares Caesar to Brutus to show that Brutus is the one who actually enacted evil. The listeners stop believing the accusations that Caesar is ruling because Antony continues to disprove Brutus’ motives for killing. Shakespeare is praising Caesar’s conspirators more than he praises Caesar. His benevolent delivery uses ethos to make an emotion connection to each individual instead of to the entire group. Citizens condemn the deaths of Caesar and take action against them. Antony’s carefully crafted speech gains strength when he inflicts an emotional reaction on Caesar while maintaining a calm voice and diction. Antony uses rhetorical questions in his final speech to encourage the public to reconsider their views and shift their focus towards vengeance against Caesar.

Although Antony seems cordial in his speech, his motives are in persuading his audience to change their beliefs to inflict revenge on Caesar. Antony is telling the crowd that Caesar’s rule has brought many captives to Rome. His ransoms paid for their release (III.ii.87-89). Shakespeare uses Antony’s heartfelt delivery to get the crowd to focus on his motives for revenge. Because it is so easy for the public relate to a man who benefits his neighbor, Shakespeare uses Antony’s diction. Antony’s double -meaning questions are used by the author for logos enhancement. Even though Antony is actually rebelling against conspirators, Caesar’s public influence statements are true. Antony draws on the emotions and opinions of the public to increase his following. Brutus argued the Romans should rebel from unjust government, which is definitely a worthy cause. Antony is able to relate to citizens by showing Caesar’s values of care for others and giving back the public. Antony asks Caesar about his ambition and shows the error. This pits Rome against those who are opposed to Caesar’s benevolence. Antony ends his speech by asking an inspiring question: “You all loved [Caesar] once. Not without cause.” What reason withholds him then to mourn? (III.ii.101-102). Shakespeare uses Antony’s genuine diction to display his suffering. Antony’s rhetorical questions force the public to grieve with him. This makes them think about Caesar’s connections, which eventually leads to rebellion. Antony’s deceptive and altruistic diction is used by the author to express a connection to a friend and to exact revenge for Caesar’s death. Antony’s speech is more personal because it forces people to understand their conflicted emotions. Brutus wanted justice for a country. It is impossible to achieve this without hard work. Shakespeare offers citizens an opportunity to sympathize and understand Antony through his rhetorical questioning. Antony is the best speech because his natural diction enhances the spirit to foster an emotional link between a good ruler and his subjects. Antony has a powerful ability to influence change. The public is quick to fight the conspirators for their cause, in order to revenge the beloved Julius Caesar.

Shakespeare uses multiple forms benevolent and deceitful diction in Julius Caesar’s tragedy. This is to show Antony’s superior speech. It is because he feels the emotions of Roman citizens more than their nationalism. Paralipsis is used by the author to show Antony’s subtle mockery towards Brutus, his co-conspirators. Antony later uses rhetorical questions to backhandedly assign blame for Brutus’ supposed honor and repeated Brutus’ claimed honor. Julius Caesar examines the abilities of men in leadership positions. Antony was correct to defend Caesar’s ideals, but Brutus showed a commitment and a sense of responsibility for his country that could prove more important to Rome.

Analysis Of Robert Frost’s Use Of Literary Devices In Mending Wall

It is rare that poetry is considered without considering Robert Frost. Robert Frost was a troubled individual who had a path that led to unexpected success. His poetry was a reflection of his life, which was consistent with his rural roots. Frost would be one of the most famous poets in English if popularity were a measure for poet’s eminence. Although Robert Frost’s view of society in his poem “Mending Wall” may be conflicted, we can see that he takes into account both his and his neighbor’s opinions. Either society is trying to separate itself or some parts are opening up to possibility of change. Frost suggests that hesitation might be due to fear. Frost uses metaphors, symbolism and imagery throughout “Mending Wall” to show how the narrator struggles with his beliefs and accepts the beliefs of his neighbor. His neighbor’s stubbornness, ignorance and inability to see the truth around him.

Frost’s poem, “Mending Wall”, begins with a line which has more meaning than its words. “Something there doesn’t love the wall” is repeated later. Frost uses this phrase throughout his poem. He continues the line “Good neighbors make good fences” and ends the poem by ending it with this. Frost was very calculated in repeating these lines. Frost made this move because it was important. These lines became ingrained in the mind of the audience through Frost’s plan. Frost was trying to let people see that he was trying to remain objective about how society should work. In truth, he wasn’t sure if society should function as a whole or separately within one community. Frost believed that we should live together. Frost believed that we should coexist harmoniously. This riddle is the reader’s puzzle, making us wonder if the wall is necessary in our lives and society. The narrator considers whether his view of the wall is right for him and whether Frost was justified in his opinion. He made the topic almost humorous by imagining trees as being able to move. “There is no wall.

He is all Pine and I am Apple Orchard. My apple trees won’t get across

He should eat the cones beneath his pines. This image shows Frost’s use of imagery, personification, and symbolism. Frost’s imagery was so simple that we could imagine an apple-tree moving over to the pine branch and eating his pine cones. This is how absurd Frost’s wall is to him. Although it isn’t something they need to survive as farmers the wall is symbolic of the stubbornness of his neighbor. Frost’s poetry about nature is a joy to read due to their skilled use of poetic devices, such as personifications and images. Personification can be used to bring life to descriptions and pictures of nature. Frost’s personifications can be described as a quick metaphor. Frost’s are almost always longer analogies. Both their crops, the apple and pine tree trees, are too far apart to cross over each other’s land. Frost suggests that their neighbor’s ignorance of this fact is what has forced them to do this tedious task. His neighbor could be so stubborn in his ways that he continues to build the wall, despite knowing all about their crops. Although he is aware of the absurdity involved with building a wall, the narrator doesn’t stop. The narrator’s uncertainty stems from his fear of the unknown. However, there is always a chance that good fences will make good neighbors. Frost’s “Mending Wall,” after some time, becomes more serious. Frost transforms from a lighthearted, laughing man walking, stealing trees into a serious man who is evaluating the man next to him. The man before the narrator is able to sense the importance by analysing the situation. “I see he there

Be sure to hold the stone by its top.

As a savage old-stone, he carries his weapons in each hand. He moves in dark as it seems.

The shade of trees and not of woods alone. This passage changes how the poem is sung. Frost’s imagery allows us to see how serious this old man is doing backbreaking work. It changes the perspective of the narrator. “Eventually, the narrator’s speculations about what might or might not love the wall turn into a description and questioning of the difficulty and motivations for the wall-mending task. His tone shifts between seriousness, whimsy, amusement, and cajolery. Frost’s poetry is known for its tension between formal meter and spoken English. This poem is reinterpreted by Frost’s tone change. The narrator’s thoughts on how the wall will affect his life can be seen. While he views it as a chore, he sees his neighbor and realizes the significance of the wall to him. This is the old man who believes in the wall. The “Mending Wall” wall is symbolic for both the characters and the readers. Robert Frost’s Mending Wall was viewed by many critics as a metaphor for the men who create barriers between them. The wall is for them a symbol of these barriers. They are able to reduce their fear of the unknown beyond their own home through the wall. The wall provides security from the dangers beyond their home and protects them from the fear of the unknown. Frost created the wall as a way to express how people desire to be independent from one another. They build this wall every year. Frost understood that walls, even though they don’t protect the physical world, can help people feel at ease. Robert Frost’s masterful use of imagery, personification, and symbolism shows how the world works as a whole. Works Cite

Chelliah S. “The Poetry Art and Vision Robert Frost with A Focus on His Pragmatic Perspective of the Relationship Between Man And Nature: a Brief Analysis.” Languages in India, vol. 17, no. 11, Nov. 2017, pp. 98-112. EBSCOhost,

McNair, Wesley. “Robert Frost’s Dramatic Speech.” Sewanee Review. Vol. 106, no. 1, Winter 1998. EBSCOhost,

Morrissey, L. J. “Mending Wall”: The Structure and Gossip. English Language notes, vol. 25, no. 3, Mar. 1988, p. 58. EBSCOhost,

Concept Of Revenge In Paper Town

Revenge means to punish someone for their pain, suffering or for violating a duty. It is not easy to encourage others to revenge, like broken trust, lack of individual satisfaction, and anger.

Trust is linked to relationships because trust can be built through connection, consistency and follow-through. Trust can be destroyed quicker than it can create. LIKEWISE trust can lead to self-satisfaction when it is broken. Margo Roth Spiegelman (from Paper Town) took revenge on her friends when she found out that her trust was being broken. Margo is married to Jase Worthington. Margo seeks revenge on him because he broke Margo’s trust. It is stated in the story as ” He’s been cheating on me for six weeks” and he has probably given me god-only-knows-what-adiseases?”(P43). These lines show Margo that Margo was cheated on by her boyfriend. These events motivated her to get revenge on her boyfriend. She took out her anger on Jason, her boyfriend. Margo knew of a Margo friend, Becca, who had cheated on Margo with Margo’s boyfriend. Margo decided to get revenge. So Margo inform her father when she was having sex with her boyfriend in the basement and following up when Becca’s father was scolding her Margo put a fish in Becca’s closet with her clothes with a message written on it “A message from Margo Roth Spiegelman: Your friendship with her – it sleeps with the fishes”, and wrote on the window with a blue spray “M”(42).Self-Satisfaction is one of the main reasons of people taking revenge. Some people believe that revenge is a way to satisfy oneself. Margo was furious at Lacey for not telling her about jase. But, Margo says, “She didn’t tell her but, looking back, it seems, she is just terrible friend.” Margo wasn’t certain that Lacey, her friend, kept jase and Becca’s relationships secret from her. Margo took revenge on Lacey out of self-satisfaction. It turned out that Lacey actually didn’t know anything about Jase and Becca’s relationship. It was found that revenge is a common motive for people to take advantage of others, rather than fully understanding the situation.

Anger can also encourage the desire to take revenge on others. Most people seek revenge through anger or rage. People with a short temper are more likely to take revenge on others than the average person. Article: “Accomplishing anger Motives Predicts Teenagers Ratings of Anger’s Benefits” Some mathematical terms show that some people who have a short temper are using revenge to justify their anger (9). Paper Town claims Margo was less tolerant than Quentin. Margo was rude and aggressive with Quentin when they were on their way to Karin. Quentin replied that Quentin had just seen a man point an assault rifle at Margo because he helped her. Margo’s temperament is also proven by Karin’s reaction to Margo telling him about jase. These incidents show Margo’s tendency to get angry at others because she has a short temper. Quentin is a good person. Margo refused his offer to go with him to New York when Quentin found Margo. This incident shows Quentin’s maturity. He was not quick to anger, but he is positive about his life. Quentin decided to embark on a new journey and take revenge for Margo’s decision.

People are very fond of revenge nowadays. If revenge really has serious drawbacks or unfavorable outcomes, then why is it so popular among people?” A simple answer is that we often think of well-publicized examples and assume that this is a very common behavior. Nine in ten Americans surveyed agreed with retaliatory strikes in Afghanistan following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York. “Revenge in the heart” seems to be a common way to respond to harm.

In conclusion, revenge can have many consequences and reasons. It seems that revenge has three main reasons. Next, revenge is a way to get satisfaction or self-satisfaction. This could be to justify or not. Anger and Rage are the third reasons. As revenge, anger or short-tempered is the most common approach. Anger can be used to harm another person or justify your anger. Therefore, it must also include satisfying oneself. Margo, Quentin and their example illustrate anger and how it should be dealt with. While there are many ways to get revenge, the most common outcome is one of the ones listed above. These situations can be handled positively by people who are positive about life. People who have one of these issues will seek revenge.

Theme Of Parental Conflict In Purple Hibiscus And Things Fall Apart

The complexity of father-son relations is highlighted in Chimamanda Achie’s Purple Hibiscus as well as Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe. Both texts explore the theme of parental conflict and illustrate the effects of Western imperialism upon Igbo culture. Adichie acknowledges openly that Achebe inspired her, but closer inspection of the nuanced differences between Achebe and Adichie’s novels will reveal Adichie’s true voice. Okonkwo is the misogynistic character who has a masculinity problem. He’s still haunted by Things Fall Apart’s pathetic reputation. Okonkwo, who is not well-known and has no titles, decided to make a better living to try to get away from his father. Eugene, who is the antagonist in Purple Hibiscus and the father figure, casts doubt on his father’s faith and exiles him. Adichie makes a comment about the changes Western colonialism brought to Nigeria by comparing the paternal conflicts between Eugene and Okonkwo.

Although Achebe and Adichie share many similarities in their realistic fiction works, the reasons and methods Eugene and Okonkwo react to paternal conflicts differ. Adichie can portray the transition from Igbo-influenced Nigerian culture to the pure Igbo standards. Unoka was poor in wealth and determination, which is why the instability. It’s no wonder that Okonkwo, his son, was ashamed of him. Okonkwo is driven by Unoka’s failure to be a respected member of Umuofia. The Umuofia standards are uninfluenced by European colonialism. This gives insight into Igbo tradition’s “original” values. Adichie can use these standards to build her father-son relationship by using them as a foundation. Eugene’s contemporary society in Enugu, however, places a greater emphasis on Catholic principles than Okonkwo’s Umuofia society. It is a fundamental difference between Papa Nnukwu and Eugene that has caused the division between them. Eugene, a Catholic convert, instills the idea that Igbo traditions are sinful in his children. This belief renders a relationship with Eugene’s father difficult and causes him to divorce Papa Nnukwu. Eugene credits his life of success not to his father’s leadership but to the missions school he attended as child. My father was a worshipper of the gods of stone and wood. “I wouldn’t be here today without the mission priests and sister” (p. 47). He believes Papa Nnukwu, a practicing Igbo tradition, is a heathen. He even limits Jaja’s interaction with Kambili. Eugene was not wronged by Papa Nnukwu. In fact, Papa Nnukwu sent Eugene to the school. Eugene, however, is indoctrinated to strict beliefs that prevent him from coming into contact with non-believers. Eugene doesn’t approve of Papa Nnukwu and he is therefore shunned. Eugene prefers Father Benedict (white pastor) over Father Amadi (nigerian pastor). Eugene’s fake British accent when speaking with Father Benedict is also a sign of the transition in Nigerian society. The ways each character reacts to parental conflict is also different. Okonkwo holds a different set, if not more so than Unoka. This is to make him stand out from his father’s negative legacy. Umuofia is not able to judge someone based on their ancestors. He rather judges them based on their actions. Okonkwo’s tolerance allows Umuofia to help him pursue a better future. While his peers respected his age and admired his achievement, he was not revered by them. According to the elders, children who wash their hands can eat with the kings if they wash their hands. Okonkwo clearly had washed his hand so that he could eat alongside kings (pg.8). Okonkwo has been able to make a name for himself by perseverance, determination and a strong character. Unoka was lazy, cowardly and of a small build. Okonkwo on the other was the most respected member of Umuofia, being steadfast and dedicated to his work ethic. Okonkwo was said to have “washed the hands” suggesting that he has taken his father’s bad name out of his life and is now a revered Umuofia member. Okonkwo’s struggles can be classified externally because they are largely motivated by social pressure.

Adichie depicts Eugene and Papa Nnukwu as culturally displaced people to show the effects of imperialism. The cultural clashes that are occurring in Nigeria are illustrated by the dissension of Papa Nnukwu & Eugene. Eugene is a Catholic, which is a result of Christian expansionism. Papa Nnukwu follows the old Igbo tradition. Adichie uses the contrast of Igbo tradition with European traditions throughout the text to represent the transformation in postcolonial Nigerian societies. Eugene’s open disapproval toward Igbo heritage is evident throughout his text. Jaja and I used to speak Igbo at home, but Eugene didn’t want us speaking it in public. He said that we needed to sound civilized to be heard in public. 16). Eugene’s insistence on inculcating English to his children is a sign of the deep-seated imperialist power in Nigeria and the extent to that Eugene has internalized it. Adichie uses Eugene’s father-son relationship as a tool to promote the idea that there is an ideological conflict between generations due to colonialist influence.

Adichie and Achebe have different portrayals of father-son conflicts. This is Adichie’s expression of European influence in Nigerian society. The core feuds of Okonkwo and Eugene have different dynamics. Okonkwo has a strong relationship with his father, but Eugene is more affected by modern Nigerian society. Adichie alters the context of Eugene’s relationship with Papa Nnukwu, so that the novel is essentially resumed where Achebe left off. Adichie uses this time gap to explain the cultural changes, as Purple Hibiscus occurs after Things fall apart. Adichie’s depiction of Catholicism’s increased importance reflects the influence of colonialism upon Nigerian and furthermore Igbo cultures. It also illustrates the conflict between “white man” and “black men’s” ideologies. Adichie subtly illustrates, on a bigger scale, the convergence in indigenous Nigerian cultural and imperialistic European cultural and the shifts that have occurred in religious ideology. This is done through the microcosmical father-son relationship.

Juliet’s Nurse As A Parenting Figure In Romeo And Juliet

The majority of modern children listen to their moms tell fairytales. But what about the women who lived before Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, and others? In previous centuries, small children care was often given to the mother of an aristocratic woman’s servants or subordinates. The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet – William Shakespeare’s play – shows that Juliet’s mother actually provides very little care. As a prized servant of the Capulet household the Nurse was given the task to care for Juliet while she was still a baby. As Juliet grew up, the Nurse cared for Juliet as if she were her own child. Juliet’s mother wasn’t a mother figure in Romeo and Juliet.

Juliet’s servant, the Nurse, plays the role of the “mother” in this play. She immediately exudes a warm personality and is easy to like when she first appears. The nurse tells the comical tale of Juliet’s childhood. This is her first encounter with the reader. “Yea,” quoth he./ Thou wilt be backward if thou hast less wit./ Wilt you not, Jule./ Act I scene iii. This story is about Juliet’s first steps and her fall. He made a very sexual comment to the nurse about his wife helping the child get up. He said that she would soon lie on her back for him. The nurse’s humorous side is shown for the first times. Juliet often found herself in trouble due to the Nurse’s humor and easygoing nature. Her secret marriage with Romeo created a gap between her parents, which drove Juliet to talk to the Nurse about her concerns. Juliet said “My only true love, sprung from me only hatred!” (Act II, scene v), which was referring specifically to the animosity that existed between Juliet’s family and Romeo’s. Juliet is a romantic at heart for Romeo. Her relatives have a preconceived hatred of Romeo. Juliet and Juliet are further apart. The Nurse was “middleman” for Romeo and Juliet, just like the Friar. Juliet quoted the Nurse’s role as a link between the two lovers. The Nurse supported Romeo and Juliet’s love despite all the opposition from the rest of their household.

Lord and Lady Capulet arranged a marriage between Juliet, Paris and Juliet, making the situation worse. Juliet was disowned as her only option. The Nurse supported Juliet, despite Juliet’s pleas not to marry him. The story’s final scene reveals the depth of Juliet’s relationship with the Nurse. The Nurse became closer to Juliet as she grew up and started to see herself more as a mother than a servant.

Where was Juliet’s mother in all her troubles? Juliet’s actual mother does not make any appearances throughout the story, although some of her interactions are very minor. It was clear that there was a deep distance between her mother and Juliet, which ultimately led to her death. Juliet’s mother was the one to do the opposite. Juliet was supported by her mother during the Paris divorce. She also joined her husband to displace Juliet.

The Nurse is a true “mother figure” in The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. The Nurse looked after Juliet throughout her childhood, adolescence, and adult years. The Nurse was Juliet’s closest mother.

Sexual Maturing Of Boys And Girls

Many social, psychical, identity and cognitive changes occur during adolescence. The expression of sexual characteristics is one of the most important changes during the transition from childhood to adulthood. The adolescent’s first experience of puberty marks the beginning of sexual characteristics.

Broderick and Blewitt (2010) define puberty to be the time when a person’s sexual maturing occurs in the latter part of childhood. Puberty results when pulsatile secretion of gonnadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) is initiated and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is activated. These hormones stimulate other hormone-producing glands to produce more hormones. Both males and women produce these hormones in different amounts. Between the ages 9 and 14, puberty is most common in girls. But, research has shown that puberty is more common in African American girls than in other races. Puberty can begin as early at six for boys and eight for girls. Over the course of approximately four years, various parts of our bodies will expand. The skull will not grow facial features like the nose and ears. The torso will not be affected by the growth of arms, legs, feet, and hands. Sometimes, there can be an asymmetrism in the growth of the breasts or testicles, which could lead to an imbalance between the two parts (Broderick and Blewitt 2010, 2010).

On average, girls gain thirty-eighty lbs during puberty. The average growth spurt will last two years longer than it does for boys. Breast growth will be greater in girls than for boys. Boys will average forty-two lbs. Their heart, lungs and bone mass will increase more in boys than girls. Males and women will both increase their height by approximately ten inches.

The behavioral changes experienced by adolescents (adolescent depression) are a popular topic to talk about when it comes to puberty. G. Stanley Hall referred as the stormy and stressful adolescence to all of the difficult behaviors. Stormy and stressful adolescence can include high levels of conflict, moodiness, depression, anxiety, and risky behaviors. Hormones can cause moodiness and depression. But hormones are only good when they are combined. Depression is more common in girls than it is in boys. This is likely due to differences between stress levels and stress coping strategies. A ruminative coping style is more common in girls than it is for boys when they are dealing with stress (Broderick & Blewitt (2010)).

It is possible to have a negative impact on the psychological well being of your teen. Most of the reasons are not related to hormones. Girls are more mature than boys when they reach puberty. A culture that is proud of the slimminess of females makes girls heavier and more unhappy. Her peers are more likely than her to tease and reject her. Pregnant girls are also more likely to be teased and rejected by their peers, especially if they have been involved with older boys (Palmert & Dunkel 2012.

The opposite is true for boys who are early maturing. They are less depressed and moody. Late maturing boys are more likely to feel the effects of stress and storms. Late maturing males are more likely to experience stress and storm than early-maturing boys. Boys who are younger than the rest of their peers tend to be more confident and more popular. Insecure, socially awkward and moody, late maturing boys tend to be more vulnerable (Palmert & Dunkel (2012)).