Rebirth And Self-discovery In The Color Purple, The Sound And The Fury, And Crow: From The Life And Songs Of The Crow

The Colour Purple was written by Alice Walker in 1982. This is because of the appearance Feminist writers during the 1970s when certain gender issues weren’t being suppressed in a patriarchal society. This allowed individuals to have more freedom in the cultural legacy of both Black communities and the Feminist movement. The drive for selfhood and intellectual awareness grew. The second text I chose is The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner, published in 1929. The novel tells the story of a Southern American family who are “on their way to dusty deaths” due to their involvement and participation in the North’s distorted politics and social struggles. The Sound and the Fury can be divided into three parts. Benjy, an 18-year-old man with a severe psychological illness, is the first to see the story. Crow: The Life and Songs of the Crow (1970), Ted Hughes used Crow the quasihuman human figure to examine the human soul and his themes of birth and death. Hughes believed that folk-mythology was incomplete without a Shamanic journey into the Underworld. This is what Hughes created in his work. Crow was Hughes’s first collection of poems. It was here that he created a complex folk mythology, based on Shamanism. Crow features a hero character who searches for answers and an imperfect God.

Celie Walker’s character narrates her personal story in an epistolary way. This allows for self revelation and also provides an intellectual process to understand herself and reality. The style is similar to Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man or William Wells Brown’s Clotel. J. Hollands wrote that this “enables you to witness the birth and development of very private writing”. He cited the example of Celie’s first line, where she changed “I am” to “I Have” and the use of the present form to replace the “I was” form. Celie’s alienation from God is demonstrated by Celie writing letters to God. “…longest I can spell G.O.D. Walker doesn’t give her protagonist any surname. This removes her sense of self and intensifies her need for contact with all people willing to help her. Faulkner portrays Benjy (the mentally disabled Compson child) as a modern Christlike figure, which mirrors the ineptness, irony and despair evident in the desperate relationship between young people and God. Caddy is shown Benjy as a potential savior. A man half the age of Jesus, yet part of a generation that slowly tarnishes the family’s name with moral decay. Faulkner portrays the new Christ as an image that would allow for the restoration and renewal, especially of Caddy. Benjy is shown crying over Caddy as he wears perfume. This symbolises the immorality Caddy’s unwed child birth. Crow is similar in that Hughes’ use and recreation of the Genesis story and Biblical language redefine God. This gave Crow the opportunity to learn humanity and change his animalistic, amoral nature. Each of the three protagonists developed a sense for themselves through contact with God. Benjy, Celie, and Crow, through their attempts to imitate God’s work, became substitutes for previously “unworthy” religious figures. Faulkner’s narrative also includes images from the busiest day on the Christian Calendar. The structure of The Sound and the Fury revolves around the Easter Week. It allows the author to explore spiritual possibilities within his characters, including Dilsey. Faulkner portrays Dilsey’s experiences of spiritual renewal as parallels to Reverend Shegog’s unorthodox but powerful Easter sermon. Accordingly, the Easter event relevant to this novel’s plot is sacrament. This isn’t an instantaneous rebirth, but rather a gradual process of awakening. Crow’s enlightenment takes place over time, as evidenced in “Crow Communes”, a short poem that might be a parody of the Christian Eucharist. Hughes calls Crow a “hierophant” because he was caught trying to eat a piece God to gain Divine knowledge and power. Crow is “blasted” and dies in “Truth Kills Everybody.” Hughes also describes Crow as a “hierophant” because he was caught eating a piece of God to gain Divine knowledge and power.

Celie’s character is, in contrast, more passively and slowly realizing spirituality. Richard Yarborough, a Critic, stated that Celie’s decision to write to Nettie instead of God was a significant moment in her psychological maturation. Celie should not be freed by this single action. Celie’s character was still subject to domestic abuse years after the “dissolution” which suggested that any form or rebirth would be after the end of the mental and physical trauma. Celie would feel more at ease if Shug Avery’s relationship with Celie becomes sexual. Celie has the greatest emotional stability at this stage. Walker makes Celie feel more self-aware and more individual. Celie signs her letters now, signing ironically “Amen” on letters addressed to Nettie while signing “God Bless You!” on others. This transition from a metaphysically created “God”, into a receptive, human substitute for God also results in a change in the narrative tone.

Hughes shows that death and life are interrelated in Crow’s spiritual rebirth. Crow Tyrannosaurus makes this clear: “Creation quaked vocals…a cortege de mourning, lament” indicates that Crow must first overcome the absurd duality trap and “try to be the light.” Crow could be seen as a pilgrim on the path to enlightenment. Crow appears to be in a paradoxical state of being “roots breaking out of the bedrock-atom” (Valerie Smith, 1987). Smith’s perspective is valid because the majority of the actions in “A Kill” are immediate and within Crow’s reach. It is important that Crow realizes that Hughes has taken control of Crow’s psyche, and therefore his body. This spiritual duality is reinforced by “Crow’s Fall’s” depiction of black and his white counterparts as mutually exclusive. Crow is described in “Crow’s Fall” as once being white. However, by fighting the white sunlight, he turns into black. Hughes suggests this spiritual duality cannot be overcome unless Crow can see the opposing opposites as mutually dependent.

The theme of duality in life and death runs through both my novels. It’s shown in The Sound and the Fury via the division between morality and ethics and in The Color Purple using color symbolism, which is a similar technique as Crow. Faulkner portrays Compson as unsure of the issue. But, because of his “self-absorbed but destructive belief in himself being able to control all things that contribute to his demise,” (Robert Butler, 1998). These events include the loss of the social ideals of feminine purity by his daughter Caddy. Jason’s greed and intellect-destroying nature are manifested in Benjy’s inability or inability of seeing the connection between immorality and morality. He is unable to overcome old sins and rebirth into spiritual freedom. The Color Purple Walker, however, introduces gradually brighter colors throughout the novel to signify the chronology that depicts various characters’ renewals, rebirths and liberation. Celie is first shown this in The Color Purple Walker’s novel. Celie has limited color options for Celie’s new gown. She then chooses a bright yellow material from Shug’s previous dresses to make her quilt. Shug, who is described by June Lawrenson, as “a revelationatory figure…the key holder to Celies emotional and Spiritual maturity”, is associated to the color purple. I consider Shug to be an “revelation figure” in Celie’s and other women’s lives. Shug helps Celie to develop a strong sense and self-esteem. He also acts as an advocate for women trapped in the 1930s’ oppressive black female lifestyle. Modernist literature often celebrates the idea that rebirth can be found in destruction and that new creation can arise from that destruction. A quote from Timothy Bewes shows this in “The Waste Land”, which is a reconstruction of the meaning of history. “These fragments I have shored against mine ruins …”,” Shug says.

Faulkner says that the potential to regenerative effects of time can’t be objectively understood but is only accessible for human interaction. Benjy, despite not having any concept of time, is shown to have a mental condition that allows him see links between the past and the present. Quentin on the other hand is unable to escape time. His futile attempts to stop the clock only make him more dependent on the cycle of destruction and not the renewal that comes from it. This eventually leads to him taking his own life. Hughes, by contrast, is much more involved than Quentin in the world’s pain. Hughes uses Faulkner’s destructive time cycle to help him come to terms and accept his own experience. The “seven-year honeymoon” mentioned in the poem “Crow Improves” could be a reference to Hughes’ marriage with Sylvia Plath which lasted from 1956 to 1963. Plath-Hughes marriage had a turbulent history. Events surrounding Plath’s suicide, such as Hughes’ affair and refusal to discuss the circumstances surrounding Plath’s passing, made him look like a murderer to many Plath sympathizers. The “seven-year honeymoon,” which Hughes and Hughes shared, only serves to reinforce their marital problems. Hughes comes to similar conclusions as Faulkner’s Quentin. If the “machine guns” on his consciousness can be dissuaded, then escaping the “marchoftime” is their only option. Critic David King says that Hughes’ “retreat from the situation [is] a necessary component of artistic detachment” and allows for the gradual acceptance of horrible events. This is a progression from the time “he sat crying” over the dark side of life to the moment “he started to laugh.”

Celie’s involvement to the cycle time further oppresses her, and Walker’s narrative is confined to her internalisations about her disturbing private life. Walker’s narrative style is an extended inner monologue. Celie is initially made to feel depersonalized because of the extreme life circumstances she is faced with, such as the incest and loss of her children. I follow the instructions. But I am alive.” It is important to remember that Celie was freed from such extreme circumstances by the passing of time. This suggests that survival can lead to rejuvenation. Faulkner, along with his contemporaries, believed that the past was unalterable and that it “a burden that deeply affects the present deeply”. Faulkner closed The Sound and the Fury by describing the dark tone of Modernist thought. Hughes, however, chose to end Crow by returning to the theme of the quest for spiritual rebirth. Keith Sagar says that Crow is Everyman who won’t acknowledge that the Black Beast, all that he hates, fears, and is afraid of, is inside him.

Walker’s voice of Celie and other Black women was not only an important step towards liberation but, along with Faulkner Hughes, he also articulated an in-depth understanding about spiritual independence, making it possible to make the leap from the specific to the universal. This trio’s portrayal and analysis of incidental events transformed spiritual and emotional freedom in the twenty-first century.

Works citées

Smith, Valerie. Harvard University Press 1987.

Butler, Robert. “Contemporary African-American Fiction: A Journey Through Time”. Associated University Presses published a book in 1998.

Lawrenson, June. Lecture: Women and Afro-American Literature. Truro, 2/8/11.

Hollands J. Lecture : Identity, Stereotypes & Silence Falmouth, 14/3/11.

Yarborough, Richard. “The First-Person of Afro-American Fiction.” Chicago University Press first published in 1989.

Bewes, Timothy. Lecture: Elements of Modernism as a Literary Style in America. During a lecture at Roehampton University in 2002, the speaker discussed the importance of understanding the context of an individual’s life when considering their behaviours. They argued that it is essential to look at the environment and experiences that have shaped an individual in order to gain insight into why they behave in certain ways.

King, David. Essay: From the Songs and Life of the Crow, a Description and Defense of Ted Hughes'”Crow”. In the fall of 2007.

Pointer, Lucas. Essay: The Burdens and History of American Literature in the Twentieth Century. In 1999.

Rhetorical Figures And Means Of Expression In Julius Caesar

The tragic play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare shows the contrast between power and honor in leadership positions. Many individuals strive to improve Rome through their own visions of national glory. Brutus and his supporters believe that Julius Caesar wasn’t an honorable ruler of Rome. They then kill him to gain their country’s benefit. Marc Antony opposes Brutus. He is a strong advocate Caesar’s rule. Both men make speeches about Caesar’s ruling, but Antony’s stronger message pits Roman citizens and conspirators against Brutus. Shakespeare used paralipsis first in Caesar’s reign by showing Antony mocking the conspirators. Antony uses rhetorical questioning and repetition of Brutus as an honorable man to cleverly blame Brutus. Shakespeare uses a variety altruistic and deceptive diction techniques to portray Antony’s speech to be superior to Brutus’. He relates to Roman citizens’ sympathies rather than their nationalism.

Brutus was reluctant to allow Antony to speak on Caesar’s funeral. Antony was asked only by Brutus not to speak negatively about the conspirators. Antony managed to evade his limitations in oratory and he is now able to ask for more. Antony claims that he first came to bury Caesar, not praise him. He did this to peacefully show his connection and honor Caesar ceremoniously (III.ii.73). Antony’s pretentious cordiality is not the truth. His motives are to revenge Caesar and he continues his praise for him regardless. Paralipsis is used in Antony’s misleading diction to subtly draw attention to Caesar’s positive rule. Antony initially presents himself as a loyalist to Brutus’ limitations. He then pretends to be loyal to improve his speech and to inspire citizens to follow his rightful ideals. Antony’s subtly used diction enhances the ethos, causing citizens to feel sympathy for Antony. Antony’s speech doesn’t promote patriotism of Rome like Brutus. Rather, it focuses on individual sentiments and encourages crowds to follow Caesar’s example. Antony’s emphasis upon Roman emotions is supported by Shakespeare when he reveals that he “speaks[s] not in order to disprove the words of Brutus, but…to express what [he] knows” (III.ii99-100). Shakespeare uses paralipsis again to distract attention from Antony’s continued opposition to Brutus’ methods. The author uses logos when referring to Caesar’s control over Brutus to influence both their minds and hearts. People are more inclined to follow people who give back. Antony’s diction can be described by the author as both benevolent but deceitful. While his morals lie at improving Rome, his motivations are to oppose Brutus’ rule in order to avenge Caesar’s death. Antony’s ability of evading Brutus’ restrictions helps to relate to citizens’ needs because the central focus is on Caesar’s past achievements. Antony later focuses on Brutus’ presumed honor to demonstrate the contrast between Caesar who was a good ruler and Brutus who was misguided. Antony focuses heavily on Brutus’ presumed honor to backhandedly mock Brutus’ morals which are different than Caesars. Antony repeats the claim that “Brutus’ honorable man” to feign loyalty towards the conspirators (III.ii.82). Antony’s repetition of diction is used by the author to show that it does not mean what it implies. Antony concoctively puts the blame for Brutus’ alleged failures on society by portraying him consistently as honorable and then complimenting him. Shakespeare uses the contrast of Brutus’s honor and his wicked actions to persuade people towards the more obvious evil, murder. Antony is a better choice than Brutus, who promotes ideals of nationalism. Shakespeare uses ethos for Antony. This is because the public views Brutus’ honor as clear, but they also see Caesar to be giving. They feel a sense of loss and are eager to have Caesar’s posthumously administered materialistic possessions. Antony asserts that Caesar “was [his] friend…fidel and just to [him], but Brutus claims he [his] ambition”, thus establishing a contrast between Caesar’s benevolent rules and Brutus’ sudden death (III.ii.84-85) Shakespeare compares Caesar to Brutus to show that Brutus is the one who actually enacted evil. The listeners stop believing the accusations that Caesar is ruling because Antony continues to disprove Brutus’ motives for killing. Shakespeare is praising Caesar’s conspirators more than he praises Caesar. His benevolent delivery uses ethos to make an emotion connection to each individual instead of to the entire group. Citizens condemn the deaths of Caesar and take action against them. Antony’s carefully crafted speech gains strength when he inflicts an emotional reaction on Caesar while maintaining a calm voice and diction. Antony uses rhetorical questions in his final speech to encourage the public to reconsider their views and shift their focus towards vengeance against Caesar.

Although Antony seems cordial in his speech, his motives are in persuading his audience to change their beliefs to inflict revenge on Caesar. Antony is telling the crowd that Caesar’s rule has brought many captives to Rome. His ransoms paid for their release (III.ii.87-89). Shakespeare uses Antony’s heartfelt delivery to get the crowd to focus on his motives for revenge. Because it is so easy for the public relate to a man who benefits his neighbor, Shakespeare uses Antony’s diction. Antony’s double -meaning questions are used by the author for logos enhancement. Even though Antony is actually rebelling against conspirators, Caesar’s public influence statements are true. Antony draws on the emotions and opinions of the public to increase his following. Brutus argued the Romans should rebel from unjust government, which is definitely a worthy cause. Antony is able to relate to citizens by showing Caesar’s values of care for others and giving back the public. Antony asks Caesar about his ambition and shows the error. This pits Rome against those who are opposed to Caesar’s benevolence. Antony ends his speech by asking an inspiring question: “You all loved [Caesar] once. Not without cause.” What reason withholds him then to mourn? (III.ii.101-102). Shakespeare uses Antony’s genuine diction to display his suffering. Antony’s rhetorical questions force the public to grieve with him. This makes them think about Caesar’s connections, which eventually leads to rebellion. Antony’s deceptive and altruistic diction is used by the author to express a connection to a friend and to exact revenge for Caesar’s death. Antony’s speech is more personal because it forces people to understand their conflicted emotions. Brutus wanted justice for a country. It is impossible to achieve this without hard work. Shakespeare offers citizens an opportunity to sympathize and understand Antony through his rhetorical questioning. Antony is the best speech because his natural diction enhances the spirit to foster an emotional link between a good ruler and his subjects. Antony has a powerful ability to influence change. The public is quick to fight the conspirators for their cause, in order to revenge the beloved Julius Caesar.

Shakespeare uses multiple forms benevolent and deceitful diction in Julius Caesar’s tragedy. This is to show Antony’s superior speech. It is because he feels the emotions of Roman citizens more than their nationalism. Paralipsis is used by the author to show Antony’s subtle mockery towards Brutus, his co-conspirators. Antony later uses rhetorical questions to backhandedly assign blame for Brutus’ supposed honor and repeated Brutus’ claimed honor. Julius Caesar examines the abilities of men in leadership positions. Antony was correct to defend Caesar’s ideals, but Brutus showed a commitment and a sense of responsibility for his country that could prove more important to Rome.

Analysis Of Robert Frost’s Use Of Literary Devices In Mending Wall

It is rare that poetry is considered without considering Robert Frost. Robert Frost was a troubled individual who had a path that led to unexpected success. His poetry was a reflection of his life, which was consistent with his rural roots. Frost would be one of the most famous poets in English if popularity were a measure for poet’s eminence. Although Robert Frost’s view of society in his poem “Mending Wall” may be conflicted, we can see that he takes into account both his and his neighbor’s opinions. Either society is trying to separate itself or some parts are opening up to possibility of change. Frost suggests that hesitation might be due to fear. Frost uses metaphors, symbolism and imagery throughout “Mending Wall” to show how the narrator struggles with his beliefs and accepts the beliefs of his neighbor. His neighbor’s stubbornness, ignorance and inability to see the truth around him.

Frost’s poem, “Mending Wall”, begins with a line which has more meaning than its words. “Something there doesn’t love the wall” is repeated later. Frost uses this phrase throughout his poem. He continues the line “Good neighbors make good fences” and ends the poem by ending it with this. Frost was very calculated in repeating these lines. Frost made this move because it was important. These lines became ingrained in the mind of the audience through Frost’s plan. Frost was trying to let people see that he was trying to remain objective about how society should work. In truth, he wasn’t sure if society should function as a whole or separately within one community. Frost believed that we should live together. Frost believed that we should coexist harmoniously. This riddle is the reader’s puzzle, making us wonder if the wall is necessary in our lives and society. The narrator considers whether his view of the wall is right for him and whether Frost was justified in his opinion. He made the topic almost humorous by imagining trees as being able to move. “There is no wall.

He is all Pine and I am Apple Orchard. My apple trees won’t get across

He should eat the cones beneath his pines. This image shows Frost’s use of imagery, personification, and symbolism. Frost’s imagery was so simple that we could imagine an apple-tree moving over to the pine branch and eating his pine cones. This is how absurd Frost’s wall is to him. Although it isn’t something they need to survive as farmers the wall is symbolic of the stubbornness of his neighbor. Frost’s poetry about nature is a joy to read due to their skilled use of poetic devices, such as personifications and images. Personification can be used to bring life to descriptions and pictures of nature. Frost’s personifications can be described as a quick metaphor. Frost’s are almost always longer analogies. Both their crops, the apple and pine tree trees, are too far apart to cross over each other’s land. Frost suggests that their neighbor’s ignorance of this fact is what has forced them to do this tedious task. His neighbor could be so stubborn in his ways that he continues to build the wall, despite knowing all about their crops. Although he is aware of the absurdity involved with building a wall, the narrator doesn’t stop. The narrator’s uncertainty stems from his fear of the unknown. However, there is always a chance that good fences will make good neighbors. Frost’s “Mending Wall,” after some time, becomes more serious. Frost transforms from a lighthearted, laughing man walking, stealing trees into a serious man who is evaluating the man next to him. The man before the narrator is able to sense the importance by analysing the situation. “I see he there

Be sure to hold the stone by its top.

As a savage old-stone, he carries his weapons in each hand. He moves in dark as it seems.

The shade of trees and not of woods alone. This passage changes how the poem is sung. Frost’s imagery allows us to see how serious this old man is doing backbreaking work. It changes the perspective of the narrator. “Eventually, the narrator’s speculations about what might or might not love the wall turn into a description and questioning of the difficulty and motivations for the wall-mending task. His tone shifts between seriousness, whimsy, amusement, and cajolery. Frost’s poetry is known for its tension between formal meter and spoken English. This poem is reinterpreted by Frost’s tone change. The narrator’s thoughts on how the wall will affect his life can be seen. While he views it as a chore, he sees his neighbor and realizes the significance of the wall to him. This is the old man who believes in the wall. The “Mending Wall” wall is symbolic for both the characters and the readers. Robert Frost’s Mending Wall was viewed by many critics as a metaphor for the men who create barriers between them. The wall is for them a symbol of these barriers. They are able to reduce their fear of the unknown beyond their own home through the wall. The wall provides security from the dangers beyond their home and protects them from the fear of the unknown. Frost created the wall as a way to express how people desire to be independent from one another. They build this wall every year. Frost understood that walls, even though they don’t protect the physical world, can help people feel at ease. Robert Frost’s masterful use of imagery, personification, and symbolism shows how the world works as a whole. Works Cite

Chelliah S. “The Poetry Art and Vision Robert Frost with A Focus on His Pragmatic Perspective of the Relationship Between Man And Nature: a Brief Analysis.” Languages in India, vol. 17, no. 11, Nov. 2017, pp. 98-112. EBSCOhost,

McNair, Wesley. “Robert Frost’s Dramatic Speech.” Sewanee Review. Vol. 106, no. 1, Winter 1998. EBSCOhost,

Morrissey, L. J. “Mending Wall”: The Structure and Gossip. English Language notes, vol. 25, no. 3, Mar. 1988, p. 58. EBSCOhost,

Concept Of Revenge In Paper Town

Revenge means to punish someone for their pain, suffering or for violating a duty. It is not easy to encourage others to revenge, like broken trust, lack of individual satisfaction, and anger.

Trust is linked to relationships because trust can be built through connection, consistency and follow-through. Trust can be destroyed quicker than it can create. LIKEWISE trust can lead to self-satisfaction when it is broken. Margo Roth Spiegelman (from Paper Town) took revenge on her friends when she found out that her trust was being broken. Margo is married to Jase Worthington. Margo seeks revenge on him because he broke Margo’s trust. It is stated in the story as ” He’s been cheating on me for six weeks” and he has probably given me god-only-knows-what-adiseases?”(P43). These lines show Margo that Margo was cheated on by her boyfriend. These events motivated her to get revenge on her boyfriend. She took out her anger on Jason, her boyfriend. Margo knew of a Margo friend, Becca, who had cheated on Margo with Margo’s boyfriend. Margo decided to get revenge. So Margo inform her father when she was having sex with her boyfriend in the basement and following up when Becca’s father was scolding her Margo put a fish in Becca’s closet with her clothes with a message written on it “A message from Margo Roth Spiegelman: Your friendship with her – it sleeps with the fishes”, and wrote on the window with a blue spray “M”(42).Self-Satisfaction is one of the main reasons of people taking revenge. Some people believe that revenge is a way to satisfy oneself. Margo was furious at Lacey for not telling her about jase. But, Margo says, “She didn’t tell her but, looking back, it seems, she is just terrible friend.” Margo wasn’t certain that Lacey, her friend, kept jase and Becca’s relationships secret from her. Margo took revenge on Lacey out of self-satisfaction. It turned out that Lacey actually didn’t know anything about Jase and Becca’s relationship. It was found that revenge is a common motive for people to take advantage of others, rather than fully understanding the situation.

Anger can also encourage the desire to take revenge on others. Most people seek revenge through anger or rage. People with a short temper are more likely to take revenge on others than the average person. Article: “Accomplishing anger Motives Predicts Teenagers Ratings of Anger’s Benefits” Some mathematical terms show that some people who have a short temper are using revenge to justify their anger (9). Paper Town claims Margo was less tolerant than Quentin. Margo was rude and aggressive with Quentin when they were on their way to Karin. Quentin replied that Quentin had just seen a man point an assault rifle at Margo because he helped her. Margo’s temperament is also proven by Karin’s reaction to Margo telling him about jase. These incidents show Margo’s tendency to get angry at others because she has a short temper. Quentin is a good person. Margo refused his offer to go with him to New York when Quentin found Margo. This incident shows Quentin’s maturity. He was not quick to anger, but he is positive about his life. Quentin decided to embark on a new journey and take revenge for Margo’s decision.

People are very fond of revenge nowadays. If revenge really has serious drawbacks or unfavorable outcomes, then why is it so popular among people?” A simple answer is that we often think of well-publicized examples and assume that this is a very common behavior. Nine in ten Americans surveyed agreed with retaliatory strikes in Afghanistan following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York. “Revenge in the heart” seems to be a common way to respond to harm.

In conclusion, revenge can have many consequences and reasons. It seems that revenge has three main reasons. Next, revenge is a way to get satisfaction or self-satisfaction. This could be to justify or not. Anger and Rage are the third reasons. As revenge, anger or short-tempered is the most common approach. Anger can be used to harm another person or justify your anger. Therefore, it must also include satisfying oneself. Margo, Quentin and their example illustrate anger and how it should be dealt with. While there are many ways to get revenge, the most common outcome is one of the ones listed above. These situations can be handled positively by people who are positive about life. People who have one of these issues will seek revenge.

Theme Of Parental Conflict In Purple Hibiscus And Things Fall Apart

The complexity of father-son relations is highlighted in Chimamanda Achie’s Purple Hibiscus as well as Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe. Both texts explore the theme of parental conflict and illustrate the effects of Western imperialism upon Igbo culture. Adichie acknowledges openly that Achebe inspired her, but closer inspection of the nuanced differences between Achebe and Adichie’s novels will reveal Adichie’s true voice. Okonkwo is the misogynistic character who has a masculinity problem. He’s still haunted by Things Fall Apart’s pathetic reputation. Okonkwo, who is not well-known and has no titles, decided to make a better living to try to get away from his father. Eugene, who is the antagonist in Purple Hibiscus and the father figure, casts doubt on his father’s faith and exiles him. Adichie makes a comment about the changes Western colonialism brought to Nigeria by comparing the paternal conflicts between Eugene and Okonkwo.

Although Achebe and Adichie share many similarities in their realistic fiction works, the reasons and methods Eugene and Okonkwo react to paternal conflicts differ. Adichie can portray the transition from Igbo-influenced Nigerian culture to the pure Igbo standards. Unoka was poor in wealth and determination, which is why the instability. It’s no wonder that Okonkwo, his son, was ashamed of him. Okonkwo is driven by Unoka’s failure to be a respected member of Umuofia. The Umuofia standards are uninfluenced by European colonialism. This gives insight into Igbo tradition’s “original” values. Adichie can use these standards to build her father-son relationship by using them as a foundation. Eugene’s contemporary society in Enugu, however, places a greater emphasis on Catholic principles than Okonkwo’s Umuofia society. It is a fundamental difference between Papa Nnukwu and Eugene that has caused the division between them. Eugene, a Catholic convert, instills the idea that Igbo traditions are sinful in his children. This belief renders a relationship with Eugene’s father difficult and causes him to divorce Papa Nnukwu. Eugene credits his life of success not to his father’s leadership but to the missions school he attended as child. My father was a worshipper of the gods of stone and wood. “I wouldn’t be here today without the mission priests and sister” (p. 47). He believes Papa Nnukwu, a practicing Igbo tradition, is a heathen. He even limits Jaja’s interaction with Kambili. Eugene was not wronged by Papa Nnukwu. In fact, Papa Nnukwu sent Eugene to the school. Eugene, however, is indoctrinated to strict beliefs that prevent him from coming into contact with non-believers. Eugene doesn’t approve of Papa Nnukwu and he is therefore shunned. Eugene prefers Father Benedict (white pastor) over Father Amadi (nigerian pastor). Eugene’s fake British accent when speaking with Father Benedict is also a sign of the transition in Nigerian society. The ways each character reacts to parental conflict is also different. Okonkwo holds a different set, if not more so than Unoka. This is to make him stand out from his father’s negative legacy. Umuofia is not able to judge someone based on their ancestors. He rather judges them based on their actions. Okonkwo’s tolerance allows Umuofia to help him pursue a better future. While his peers respected his age and admired his achievement, he was not revered by them. According to the elders, children who wash their hands can eat with the kings if they wash their hands. Okonkwo clearly had washed his hand so that he could eat alongside kings (pg.8). Okonkwo has been able to make a name for himself by perseverance, determination and a strong character. Unoka was lazy, cowardly and of a small build. Okonkwo on the other was the most respected member of Umuofia, being steadfast and dedicated to his work ethic. Okonkwo was said to have “washed the hands” suggesting that he has taken his father’s bad name out of his life and is now a revered Umuofia member. Okonkwo’s struggles can be classified externally because they are largely motivated by social pressure.

Adichie depicts Eugene and Papa Nnukwu as culturally displaced people to show the effects of imperialism. The cultural clashes that are occurring in Nigeria are illustrated by the dissension of Papa Nnukwu & Eugene. Eugene is a Catholic, which is a result of Christian expansionism. Papa Nnukwu follows the old Igbo tradition. Adichie uses the contrast of Igbo tradition with European traditions throughout the text to represent the transformation in postcolonial Nigerian societies. Eugene’s open disapproval toward Igbo heritage is evident throughout his text. Jaja and I used to speak Igbo at home, but Eugene didn’t want us speaking it in public. He said that we needed to sound civilized to be heard in public. 16). Eugene’s insistence on inculcating English to his children is a sign of the deep-seated imperialist power in Nigeria and the extent to that Eugene has internalized it. Adichie uses Eugene’s father-son relationship as a tool to promote the idea that there is an ideological conflict between generations due to colonialist influence.

Adichie and Achebe have different portrayals of father-son conflicts. This is Adichie’s expression of European influence in Nigerian society. The core feuds of Okonkwo and Eugene have different dynamics. Okonkwo has a strong relationship with his father, but Eugene is more affected by modern Nigerian society. Adichie alters the context of Eugene’s relationship with Papa Nnukwu, so that the novel is essentially resumed where Achebe left off. Adichie uses this time gap to explain the cultural changes, as Purple Hibiscus occurs after Things fall apart. Adichie’s depiction of Catholicism’s increased importance reflects the influence of colonialism upon Nigerian and furthermore Igbo cultures. It also illustrates the conflict between “white man” and “black men’s” ideologies. Adichie subtly illustrates, on a bigger scale, the convergence in indigenous Nigerian cultural and imperialistic European cultural and the shifts that have occurred in religious ideology. This is done through the microcosmical father-son relationship.

Juliet’s Nurse As A Parenting Figure In Romeo And Juliet

The majority of modern children listen to their moms tell fairytales. But what about the women who lived before Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, and others? In previous centuries, small children care was often given to the mother of an aristocratic woman’s servants or subordinates. The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet – William Shakespeare’s play – shows that Juliet’s mother actually provides very little care. As a prized servant of the Capulet household the Nurse was given the task to care for Juliet while she was still a baby. As Juliet grew up, the Nurse cared for Juliet as if she were her own child. Juliet’s mother wasn’t a mother figure in Romeo and Juliet.

Juliet’s servant, the Nurse, plays the role of the “mother” in this play. She immediately exudes a warm personality and is easy to like when she first appears. The nurse tells the comical tale of Juliet’s childhood. This is her first encounter with the reader. “Yea,” quoth he./ Thou wilt be backward if thou hast less wit./ Wilt you not, Jule./ Act I scene iii. This story is about Juliet’s first steps and her fall. He made a very sexual comment to the nurse about his wife helping the child get up. He said that she would soon lie on her back for him. The nurse’s humorous side is shown for the first times. Juliet often found herself in trouble due to the Nurse’s humor and easygoing nature. Her secret marriage with Romeo created a gap between her parents, which drove Juliet to talk to the Nurse about her concerns. Juliet said “My only true love, sprung from me only hatred!” (Act II, scene v), which was referring specifically to the animosity that existed between Juliet’s family and Romeo’s. Juliet is a romantic at heart for Romeo. Her relatives have a preconceived hatred of Romeo. Juliet and Juliet are further apart. The Nurse was “middleman” for Romeo and Juliet, just like the Friar. Juliet quoted the Nurse’s role as a link between the two lovers. The Nurse supported Romeo and Juliet’s love despite all the opposition from the rest of their household.

Lord and Lady Capulet arranged a marriage between Juliet, Paris and Juliet, making the situation worse. Juliet was disowned as her only option. The Nurse supported Juliet, despite Juliet’s pleas not to marry him. The story’s final scene reveals the depth of Juliet’s relationship with the Nurse. The Nurse became closer to Juliet as she grew up and started to see herself more as a mother than a servant.

Where was Juliet’s mother in all her troubles? Juliet’s actual mother does not make any appearances throughout the story, although some of her interactions are very minor. It was clear that there was a deep distance between her mother and Juliet, which ultimately led to her death. Juliet’s mother was the one to do the opposite. Juliet was supported by her mother during the Paris divorce. She also joined her husband to displace Juliet.

The Nurse is a true “mother figure” in The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. The Nurse looked after Juliet throughout her childhood, adolescence, and adult years. The Nurse was Juliet’s closest mother.

Sexual Maturing Of Boys And Girls

Many social, psychical, identity and cognitive changes occur during adolescence. The expression of sexual characteristics is one of the most important changes during the transition from childhood to adulthood. The adolescent’s first experience of puberty marks the beginning of sexual characteristics.

Broderick and Blewitt (2010) define puberty to be the time when a person’s sexual maturing occurs in the latter part of childhood. Puberty results when pulsatile secretion of gonnadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) is initiated and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is activated. These hormones stimulate other hormone-producing glands to produce more hormones. Both males and women produce these hormones in different amounts. Between the ages 9 and 14, puberty is most common in girls. But, research has shown that puberty is more common in African American girls than in other races. Puberty can begin as early at six for boys and eight for girls. Over the course of approximately four years, various parts of our bodies will expand. The skull will not grow facial features like the nose and ears. The torso will not be affected by the growth of arms, legs, feet, and hands. Sometimes, there can be an asymmetrism in the growth of the breasts or testicles, which could lead to an imbalance between the two parts (Broderick and Blewitt 2010, 2010).

On average, girls gain thirty-eighty lbs during puberty. The average growth spurt will last two years longer than it does for boys. Breast growth will be greater in girls than for boys. Boys will average forty-two lbs. Their heart, lungs and bone mass will increase more in boys than girls. Males and women will both increase their height by approximately ten inches.

The behavioral changes experienced by adolescents (adolescent depression) are a popular topic to talk about when it comes to puberty. G. Stanley Hall referred as the stormy and stressful adolescence to all of the difficult behaviors. Stormy and stressful adolescence can include high levels of conflict, moodiness, depression, anxiety, and risky behaviors. Hormones can cause moodiness and depression. But hormones are only good when they are combined. Depression is more common in girls than it is in boys. This is likely due to differences between stress levels and stress coping strategies. A ruminative coping style is more common in girls than it is for boys when they are dealing with stress (Broderick & Blewitt (2010)).

It is possible to have a negative impact on the psychological well being of your teen. Most of the reasons are not related to hormones. Girls are more mature than boys when they reach puberty. A culture that is proud of the slimminess of females makes girls heavier and more unhappy. Her peers are more likely than her to tease and reject her. Pregnant girls are also more likely to be teased and rejected by their peers, especially if they have been involved with older boys (Palmert & Dunkel 2012.

The opposite is true for boys who are early maturing. They are less depressed and moody. Late maturing boys are more likely to feel the effects of stress and storms. Late maturing males are more likely to experience stress and storm than early-maturing boys. Boys who are younger than the rest of their peers tend to be more confident and more popular. Insecure, socially awkward and moody, late maturing boys tend to be more vulnerable (Palmert & Dunkel (2012)).

Hawthorne’s Use Of The Themes Of Dark Romanticism In The Scarlet Letter

In American history, logic and facts were more important than silly emotions at times. After the Industrial Revolution began, the Romantic writing style was reintroduced to the mainstream. It emphasized emotions such as guilt, anger and sin. This was a sign that American society was moving into another time when intuition and spontaneity were much more important. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter uses Dark Romanticism themes to address the issues of the characters. Hawthorne uses these principles to address themes such as evil, good and bad, the inherent madness and innocence of children in his book.

Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter is a powerful symbol of the importance sin and guilt. The book examines Arthur Dimmesdale’s guilt and compares it with Roger Chillingsworth’s revenge-driven actions. Hawthorne says that guilt’s effects upon the mind are completely innocuous, but this emotion is far more dangerous than any knife. Dimmesdale, for example, is obsessed with his own sins and afraid of not being able to confess them. He also connects his sins with the world around them. This makes him see hatred, evil, shame all around. His high status is at risk because the forest represents his secrets, which could be revealed at any moment by the villagers. Dimmesdale appears to be consumed by his guilt and sees everyone in danger. However, Roger Chillingsworth is the real threat. Dimmesdale has trouble recognizing threats, as he can see them all. The story is filled with characters who debate the identity of the “black man”. The devil’s child is Pearl, while Dimmesdale and Chillingsworth are thought to be the two. The characters desire to understand the root cause of the evil they have seen manifest in their lives as a result of their sins. They wonder if Chillingsworth was made evil by Hester’s love for Dimmesdale. This leads to the belief that love for another person breeds hatred, which then creates evil. The narrator argues that the knowledge of one’s heart “reinforces” dependence on another. Two people sharing comfort with one another is not an act that would be considered evil. Dimmesdale or Hester were not able to define evil. Evil can be found in Chillingsworth’s venomous heart, which was created from false love.

The Scarlet Letter reflects a strong belief that youth is innocent. Youth is always regarded as an superior concept of wisdom in the Scarlet Letter. We are told in the story that urban society has not influenced our knowledge. Pearl, Hester’s daughter, was able to discern that the Dimmesdale, the “black man,” was Hester. She wondered why he didn’t show his affections publicly while only doing so in private. The forest represents an escape from the society. Hester, Dimmesdale could only speak freely in this environment. The forest also considered Pearl its own, allowing her to interact easily with the animals and making them feel unafraid. Both the forest and her author acknowledge Pearl’s innocence. They interact with her.

Nathaniel Hawthorne uses a variety of ideals to inscribe many themes of Dark Romanticism to convey the ideals of 19th-century authors. For personalities that view life differently, such as the Dark Romantic era of the 19th-century, the innocence of youth and madness of human psyche are used. The Scarlet Letter shows the time period in detail and offers comfort that this instrumental period can still be found through this book.

Analysis Of The Relationship Between George Milton And Lennie Small

“There is friendship, there is family, and then you have friends that become your family.” (unknown). John Steinbeck’s novel Of Mice and Men tells the story of Lennie and George Small, freelancing ranch workers in the 1930s who dream of owning their land. They discovered the friendship that allows them to move around Northern California in search of new opportunities. They faced many obstacles as they worked to achieve their dreams, but they stayed strong together to find their friendship. Steinbeck’s accurate portrayal of friendship as essential and vital in one’s life is a testament to his understanding. Without it, people can become irrationally angry and spiteful. Lennie, a tall and mentally disabled man, is featured in the novel. George, a small, sharp, quick-tempered, but strong leader, is also featured. George is always there to help Lennie and keep him from getting into trouble. George realized that Lennie was severely mentally handicapped and would support him by being there for him. George proves that friendship is built around the person and not on their outside appearance. George doesn’t let Lennie down when he gets frustrated. He still takes care of Lennie. George was there to support Lennie in his mistakes and get him into serious trouble. Slim asked George about his friendship and he replied “Yes we travel together.” (page 35). Lennie and George have a strong friendship. Although Lennie did some bad things, it was a close friendship. Loneliness can make you feel depressed. Many people struggle with loneliness. It can lead to a lack in communication and negatively impact the lives of others. Steinback describes Curley and Candy’s loneliness. Curley’s spouse is married to Curley. Curley is a man who proves that he can defeat any man. Curley also marries Candy because he finds her attractive to men. Curley dominates his wife’s freedom mainly through the novel. He won’t let other men speak to his spouse. Curley’s wife is desperate to find a friend and someone she can talk with. Chapter 4: She entered Crooks’ bedroom and threatened him. Crooks tried to defend himself but she said “sprung up on an easy tree, it’s not even funny.” Curley’s spouse was never called a “tramp” by her husband. Curley would allow Curley’s wife to have a conversation with other men and make them friends. It would make Curley happier than if Curley made Curley a friend. Great friendships like George or Lennie can help end loneliness.

George and Lennie grow closer together towards the end. They have a strong bond. George is a good friend to Lennie and does everything for him in the hope of helping him later in his life. It was clear that George cares deeply about Lennie, as he shot him on the back of his skull. George did not want Lennie to hurt. But, it was necessary to do the right thing and make Lennie have a happy life. The shot went off and Lennie rolled back up. Lennie settled back down slowly.” George was Lennie’s best friend. George had to see his friends beat up and/or killed. Although it was difficult for George to see Lennie dead, it is a sign of how deep their friendship has been throughout the book.

George and Lennie share a unique friendship that no other characters have. These two friends are a symbol of friendship, even when one is troublemaker. The novel shows us how much George really knows about Lennie. The friendships that are made may be different from what we see now. Although friendship at school may seem to be a myth, there aren’t many friends who stay close until death. Teenagers, as well as adults, are obsessed with expensive gadgets, clothes and other items. They become so fascinated by everything, they neglect to communicate with their peers. They are too busy with other things to be able to have a conversation with their friends or to discover differences among them. I learned from this novel that friendship is essential for success in life.

Maturing Jack Burden: The Responsibility Of The Converted, Nihilistic Idealist

Robert Penn Warren’s All the King’s Men features Jack Burden as the narrator. This fictionalized Warren is Jack Burden. Jack is a fictionalized version of Warren’s views. His views are at first nihilistic. Cynical. Escapist. He tries to distance his actions and himself from the darkness that surrounds them, while simultaneously absolving all responsibility. Jack’s transformation is revealed by four events at the end of the book: Ellis Burden’s departure, the Case of the Upright Judge’s deaths, the death of three men and Anne, his youthful relationship. Jack is forced to accept responsibility and believes in the Spider Web Theory. He also rejects moral relativism.

Jack’s early cynicism stems from his past. Jack’s father Ellis Burden leaves Jack at six years of age to become a street-corner evangelist. His mother tells him that Ellis left because he did not love his mother. He should therefore consider his father dead (114). Jack interprets Ellis’s abandonment as abandonment until he learns the reason he fled years later. He feels angry, rejected, and confused. This leads to Jack’s insistence on denying responsibility and his inability to understand human motivation. Jack doesn’t consider the possibility that Jack may have been motivated by his mother to leave. Inadequacy also shapes Jack’s outlook on life. Jack, a grown-up, is embarrassed when he visits Ellis. Jack is ashamed of Ellis’s generosity and happiness, while Ellis feels weak. Jack sees the problem. He hasn’t inherited the traits that will make him successful. He is destined to live a life of indecision and boredom. Jack’s lack of ambition is a result of his observations about where his father’s ambition has taken him–the street corner. Jack even states that Ellis Burden had done a lot to show Jack that he was not worthy of his good deeds (353). Jack doesn’t have any dreams or hopes partly because he doesn’t have a father he could emulate. Jack is so influenced by his life that he identifies himself as three distinct, standing identities. Jack the Graduate student is another such identity. Jack cannot understand other people’s motivations. After a period of one and a-half years, he decided to leave his PhD dissertation on Cass Mastern because he believed he “knew Gilbert Mastern” but “realized that Cass Mastern was not what he thought” (188). Jack the Graduate student could not create a complete picture of Cass Mastern’s reality without knowing the man behind it. Jack the Graduate is unable to see the past and make sense of it, even though his attempts to withdraw from the present are unsuccessful.

Jack doesn’t want to touch the past because it causes him pain. Jack, the adult Jack is telling this story, is responsible and mature enough to take on the responsibility of explaining the past. He has the courage and direction Jack the Graduate Student did not have. Jack the earlier Jack couldn’t understand why Cass Mastern was not his friend, but Jack (who is Jack Burden), looks back at years past and tries to explain why” (188). Jack the younger saw the papers as “an accumulation, odds and end” (189). Jack is an idealist who treats the environment and those around him as imaginary. He is also nihilistic, deconstructionist and he sees only the real. He can even see through people close to him like Anne, Adam and Willie. Jack the Narrator could see what he had missed. He was still trying escape his past and to understand the events that have impacted on him through his history study and reverence for time. He was still trying to discover the truth.

Jack the Narrator discovered the truth about the spider web, just like Cass Mastern. Jack the Graduate Student can’t see it. Jack the Narrator says he understands Cass’s motives because he knows what Cass discovered in his quest to free Phoebe. This world is “all in one,” as a “large spider-web” that vibrates when touched. It prepares the web for what it will eat. This is the core of the spiderweb theory. These ideas were beyond Jack throughout his entire life. Jack finally gives up and accepts his failure. Cass Mastern was responsible for Jack’s inability to understand it. Jack wasn’t responsible. Jack has trouble reconciling past and future, but he is equally unable to accept and understand cause/effect. In the second half, Jack’s irresponsible acts continue to harm him.

Jack spends the majority of the novel playing Jack the Muckraker or Irresponsible Cinic. His focus is on the “The Case of the Upright Judge”, where he finds information that will lead the way to the demise of several women and men. While he starts off with a suspicion about the Judge’s financial situation, Jack gains little from his pseudo-father, the Scholarly Advocate, who talks of “foulness and all foulness!” (202) regarding Jack’s past with Irwin. Jack is able to hint at the fact that Judge was once poor. Anne calls Jack, to tell him Irwin had married into financial gain. However further research into Mabel Carruthers history in Savannah shows that Mabel Carruthers has been just as financially troubled as his first wife (218). Jack digs deeper into Irwin’s past to find more information. Jack discovers Judge Irwin used 500 shares American Electric Power Company stock as an bribe to dismiss a Southern Belle Fuel Company case. He then used the money he made from selling stock to save his plantation. Jack attempts to get the truth from Lily Mae Littlepaugh through bribery and guile. After learning the truth, Jack discovers that Irwin had “killed Mortimer in a deal” (225), and that Stanton was also involved. It will force unexpected decisions from those who have it.

Jack’s transfer of Stanton and Irwin evidence to Anne and Adam leads to Willie’s demise. Adam refuses Willie a job when Jack first proposes to Adam. Jack informs Adam that Adam’s failure is due to his need to “do well” and his Christ Complex. Anne begs Jack not to let Adam do the job. Adam’s moral code places him in opposition with Willie Stark. Jack’s decision that to tell Anne the truth and give Anne the evidence resulted in many changes for Stantons. Jack informs Anne that Irwin’s murder (249) was covered up by her father, which is contrary to the moral absolutism Governor Stanton displayed before his children. He gives her proof to examine. Adam agrees that he will be the chief of staff for Willie Stark’s soon constructed hospital. Anne told him, “He said to me to tell ya that he would. It was possible. That was it. (254). Adam’s hope is crushed by the discovery of his father’s corruption. Adam is now allowed to work in Willie’s hospitals because of his spider web.

Jack’s actions cause harm to Anne Stanton. Jack’s discovery causes Anne to lose her ideaslism. Willie was initially a turnoff for Anne, an aristocratic lady who values power over direction. Jack asks Anne whether Willie promised to deliver the speech he gave. Jack responds, “How can I know?” (262). Anne gets engaged to Willie due to his willpower. Sadie felicitates Jack for introducing the new woman to Willie’s family. Jack must go to Anne to speak with her. She confirms that Willie has made her his new mistress. This knowledge has shattered Jack’s spirit. The loss of one of Jack’s closest friends, the woman he adored for her Old South morality & ideals, is a painful experience. He caused Anne emotional and physical pain by his actions.

Jack’s relationship with Anne in the past taught him how it feels to love. This is also where many of Jacks character flaws lie. Jack finally falls in love at 21 with Anne, thinking “you’re in love” (277). On their walk together, he kisses Anne. She goes to her bedroom to think about it. Anne asks Jack where he is going next. Jack says he doesn’t want to let Anne starve. Jack lacks ambition and direction, which causes Anne to hesitate about becoming more serious in their relationship. The couple fight constantly and fail together to find a way to be together. Jack discovers that Anne’s Maine return was not what it used to be (300). Anne meets Willie and finds the direction she needs. She accepts Willie’s new affair, even though her father is clearly wrong. Jack is paralysed and indecisive, and Anne suffers the consequences. Jack begins to view all of life as “a flicker in the blood,” and believes he is not responsible for any events that occur. He believes that “you cannot lose the things you’ve never had” (311). He becomes more bitter, cynical, indecisive from this new misinterpretation of truth.

Jack makes his final defense against accepting the responsibility for the spider web. Jack finds an old hitchhiker and discovers the Great Twitch Theory. He then derives the Great Twitch from this phenomenon, which says that all human actions can be attributed to random phenomena. This understanding will make you “one with the Great Twitch.” (314). These auspices allow Jack to do whatever he wants without feeling responsible for any of it. Jack is free from all worldly responsibility, which makes it difficult to interact with Anne, Willie and Judge Irwin. Jack decides that he will present the evidence to the Judge in his own manner. His encounter with the Judge will test his newfound comfort zone.

Jack is able to redeem himself and be reborn by challenging Judge Irwin’s newly-founded theory. Judge Irwin is unflinching when Jack presents evidence about Irwin’s bribe, and the consequences. Irwin refuses to plea for Jack to spare his biological father, as Irwin says, “I could just… just tell you that…something…But I won’t” (347). The judge instead commits suicide. Jack concludes that the judge committed suicide. A man who knew how to live would not die if he did” (353). Jack forgoes the “good and weak father” (354). He is relieved to learn that his father was not the weak Ellis Burden. He is an example for moral uprightness, courage. Jack isn’t able to display these qualities, but he can try to emulate them.

Jack is able to see the bigger picture with a greater sense responsibility. Jack feels a greater respect for his mother, and her ability to love a woman. As he comes to terms with the actions taken by the Scholarly Advocate, he feels pity and sorry for Ellis Burden. He was “cuckolded [Judge Irwin]” (353). And he was driven from the home. Jack sold his humble Old South morality in exchange for power, and he’s now starting to regret it.

Jack’s final redemption will not be peaceful. Jack’s conscience is destroyed by the suicide attempt of Judge. This will set the stage for the dramatic events to come. Jack is moved to tears by the news that the judge has given Jack the plantation. This was his most open display of emotion since Anne’s relationship. Chapter Eight’s closing sentence, which has a double meaning, essentially prefigures the future: “It seemed like the ice was breaking apart after a long winter.” And the winter was long” (354). The ice created by Jack’s emotionlessness, carelessness, and cold temperatures has started to melt. The Great Twitch will similarly be affected by the death of Judge Irwin and Adam Stanton.

Jack’s death is a significant event. Willie and Adam are shot to death one after another, accelerating Jack’s transformation. Adam is manipulated by the caller to accept the story of Anne’s affair with Willie. Also, the caller tells Adam about Adam’s new replacement at hospital. Adam failed Willie’s son. Anne confronts him and he flees. Jack is unable to stop Willie from shooting Adam because he fails to locate Adam. Jack calls Adam, but he doesn’t hear Jack call him. Jack initially thinks Adam is just going to shake Willie’s hand. Jack witnesses Adam shooting Willie twice. Sugar Boy then the State Trooper also shot him twice. Jack is used to the Boss controlling the situation. However, this is not the same situation as Tom Stark’s fate. Willie pleadings that “things could’ve been different” (400). He has moral relativism left, which he opposes to moral absolutism Adam would have given his life for. Jack must reject this relativism. Jack must accept his responsibility for Willie’s death and come to terms.

Jack’s final transformation was based on the realization that everyone must take responsibility. He must admit that he was involved in many of the tragedies and events in the second part. He would not have started researching the Judge to create the tragic and ironic sequence of events in the final chapters. This confirms Jack’s belief that men do not have responsibility for the events they experience. The Great Twitch is thus defeated. Jack blames Tiny Duffy’s death on Willie (413-5). Tiny must take responsibility. Everyone else must do the same. Tiny believed Jack would be a good fit for him, as Jack was only another cog in the political machinery. Jack must understand that he was a key player in Willie Stark’s and Adam Stanton’s deaths. This realization will break the Great Twitch’s and Jacks sense of self-righteousness.

Jack is able to see all things as one. He can now see that if you cannot accept the past with its burden, there is no future. For only out of this past, you can create the future. Because all Jacks now have one Jack, he is capable of handling his transformation. Hugh Miller will be his new employer, and Jack will return to politics. Anne will accompany him on their journey, “out of History into History and the terrible responsibility and time” (438). Jack is willing to accept responsibility for his actions as well as his life. Jack is now transformed, and he’s able to take responsibility for his actions. He has rejected Cass Mastern’s Great Twitch. And as the current narration, he can understand Cass Mastern’s thesis, understand the truth about the spider web, and write it. Jack Burden is therefore a trinity. He can be either an immature, impressionable youth or a disillusioned, irresponsible, disillusioned adult. He is a person who evolves and becomes the best version of himself.