Noble Savage: A Primitive Man Theme In Moby Dick

Moby Dick is filled with many themes and ideas. However, Melville’s Moby Dick is less focused on the superiority of primitive man to modern man. The book’s undertone is Moby Dick’s admiration for the “noble Savage”, which was so prominent in Melville’s earlier stories of the idyllic and simple life of cannibals. However, the emphasis has been moved to the dangers and the struggle between good versus evil.

Before we discuss Melville’s glorifying of “primitive-man” in Moby Dick’s novel, we must agree on a working definition. Ashley Montagu in her essay “The Concept of the Primitive,” argues against the use of the term “primitive”, within a scientific context. This is because it is ambiguous and can have so many different connotations. He shows that “primitive” peoples don’t have the same level of development, civilization, or simplicity as they seem to think. Because Melville believed primitive man was a god, he didn’t know how to define it scientifically. On one level, Queequeg is a prime example for the superiority of a true “primitive” person. The fictionalized “native Kokovo” depicts Melville’s impressions of the natives he met on his trip to the tropical island. He shows his selflessness and strength by diving after the young “bumpkin”, and when he rescues Tashtego from the icy waters. Queequeg’s impact on Ishmael speaks volumes about his goodness. “I felt a melting in me. I felt a melting in me.

Many people believe that Moby Dick’s central theme is that you can’t assign one meaning to everything and that Ahab is dangerously trying to do this, which is what many have stated. Queequeg’s role in saving Ishmael from death is clear if you agree with this viewpoint. Ishmael has a new way of seeing the world after meeting Queequeg for the first time. Clark Davis says that Ishmael is saved by Queequeg’s influence. He uses his coffin to provide a life-buoy. Queequeg is primitive and gives civilized Ishmael an improved perspective of life.

Higher levels of thought can see an analogy between whale-men, whaling ships, and whaling themselves, as well as primitive man’s nomadic tribe and the hunt that was his way. Ishmael states that “your true whale-hunter” is “as savage and an Iroquois”; Ahab contemplates the motives of his “savage crew.” Eventually, the whale-men are “restored to the condition in which God placed,” i.e. this is called “savagery” (see Chapter 56: Brit) The ship is a nomadic tribe that roams the prairies looking for great beasts to hunt down and kill. These ship-tribes can be rare and they are often able to share stories and any knowledge they have. The whale hunt serves as a metaphor for a hunt that was the mainstay of primitive man’s time and provided their sustenance. It is easy to imagine cavemen throwing spears at mammoths when all the harpooners launch their harpoons towards a whale. The prehistoric whalemen must also exhibit the same virtues as the mammoth-hunters; they must be courageous, persistent, and solidarious. Melville does not simply want to be credible in writing about whaling. Melville may be subconsciously yearning for past glory of the hunt, as well as admiring the beautiful and romantic virtues that the “noble, wild” character has.

We come to Ishmael. His quest is the thread and glue which binds the entire book together. Ishmael starts the book angry about the world. He embarks on the whaling journey to “wardoff his spleen”. Ishmael claims that the whale-ship was both his Yale College, and Harvard. He now uses this ship to gain a better understanding of life. Like all people came from sea, so does the sea call them back. This is the common longing of all for the land of our birth. Ishmael travels to the sea because it has not changed since before the arrival of man. It is therefore “primitive” as such. It is a type of ancient repository of wisdom. Ishmael is able to see the world from many perspectives. Ishmael learned to be open to new ideas and to cherish human companionship.

Melville shared the sentiment of Nathaniel Hawthorne that modern society is becoming corrupted. He wanted to return humanity to its “roots”. He saw the dangers in new commercialism, and in Moby Dick’s great theme, he quotes Ahab to warn against the nation’s obsession with the American Dream. Melville was a turbulent man who felt overwhelmed by modern life. The brief time that he spent with savages seemed to have provided an alternative to the stress of modern life. In Typee and Omoo, Melville praises the virtues and deplores the interference of missionaries.

Moby Dick still feels reverence for the primitive beginnings of man in Queequeg’s noble persona and in the whalers, whaling, and even in the primeval sea, which teaches Ishmael.

How Moses The Raven Is Used As A Representation Of The Church In Animal Farm

George Orwell’s allegorical novel Animal Farm was inspired by the history of the 1917 Russian Revolution. The tale centers around a group rebelling against their farm owners to make a utopian nation. Over the fighting and squabbling of the animals, there is a religious raven who resembles that of the Russian Orthodox Christian Church during the Russian Revolution. This essay will focus on the humorous relationship between Moses and the Orthodox church in the Russian Revolution. First, it is clear that the support of both the church and Moses made it difficult for authority to abolish them. Moses and the Orthodox Church demonstrate how religion can benefit a functioning society by controlling and maintaining sanity among workers and peasants by promoting preaches. Finally, both religious forces sought superior advantages by attaching themselves to forms or authority.

Animal Farm’s Moses the Raven is a symbol of organized religion that threatens socialism or communism. Moses is described as “Mr. Moses, who is called “Mr. He also implied that animals shouldn’t be concerned about building a better future for themselves by focusing only on the idea there was a paradise after death. Moses is also a priest-like figure, since Orwell 32 says that Moses was hated by the animals because he told stories but did not work. Priests don’t have to do real labour as common workers. The pigs initially found it annoying because they wanted animals to be able to see how wonderful Animal Farm was. Moses soon left the farm. He would reappear in the book later. But now things were different and the pigs didn’t want to let him go. It was hard to find out the attitude of the pigs toward Moses. All of them declared contemptuously that Moses’ stories about Sugarcandy Mountain were false, but they let him stay on the farm, and not work, with an allowance for a gill each day.” (Orwell, 88). The pigs now allow Moses to hang around because they now see the value of having their workers listen and do their jobs with minimal fuss and good behavior. Karl Marx (Orwell 16), is Old Major’s real-life equivalent. Karl Marx was the father both of Communism and Animalism. Karl Marx once said, “Religious pain is both the expression and protest against real suffering.” Religion is the sighing, heartbreaking, and soulless of the oppressed. It is the opium people need. The only way to ensure their true happiness is to abolish religion. It is their obligation to stop imagining a worse world. It is the opioid of the people. Marx refers to religion as what happens when the oppressed and the heartless need something to hold onto. Moses was not able to return to Animal Farm. We now see it as less prosperous and happier under Animalism. This is a direct result of the Russian Orthodox Christian Church during the Russian Revolution. Despite all the Bolsheviks efforts to discredit the church’s popularity, the real strength and depth in religion prevails, especially after World War 2. It becomes evident that Moses’s power and strength makes it hard to suppress his popularity. This is similar in nature to revolution religion. Even though the pigs disapproved of the concept of a better universe, they tolerated Moses’ presence, as he was unknowingly benefitting them.

Moses the Raven speaks of Sugarcandy Mountain. There, clover was available seven days a week, sugar was available all year, and sugar, lump sugar, and linseed cakes were grown on the hedges. These fantasies are the root cause of control and sanity among the animals. The animals are pressured and tricked into believing there is an afterlife. They are then made to continue working hard and become lulled into believing him. They realized that their lives were difficult and difficult now. The farm animals that are under oppression have something to be excited about. It is almost identical in its role in the revolution. The church resembled an opioid drug. It was used to help the poor keep working. The workers were able to believe in the religion, which allowed them to maintain control. The idea of an afterlife was a comfort for the poor and hardworking during the revolution. It also helped to eliminate controversy and maintain discipline. The church was essential to avoiding chaos, uproar, or more rebellions. The church was a beacon of hope and stability for the working classes, just like Moses’ role as Animal Farm. Moses was unknowingly a valuable asset for the pigs. They all disowned Moses’ stories about Sugarcandy Mountain, but they let him stay on the farm and not work, with an allowance for a gill a beer per day.” This was only if he talked to the farm animals regularly about Sugarcandy Mountain. The pigs realized that Moses was Jones’ favorite pet because he controlled the farm.

The relationship between Moses Jones & Mr Jones corresponds to that between the Russian Orthodox and Tsar. Rasputin, a mythical faith healing specialist and friend of the Tsar was an example of Rasputin’s trustworthiness. The last Russian Tsar, the Tsar, was Mr Jones. This proves allegory. These two rulers were notoriously negligent, which led to the rebellions. In Chapter 2, it is clear that Moses and Mr. Jones’s pet was an especial spy and tale-bearer. But he was also a smart talker. He goes with the Joneses after the rebellion. He doesn’t need the daily bread or beer so he can leave the farm. Jones looked out his bedroom window and saw that something was happening, then he slipped away from the farm. Moses stood up and began to flap after her, loudly crooning. Moses returns to the farm in the satirized World War 2 story, “The Battle of the Windmills,” after which he is offered “a gallon of beer a daily” (9.8). Unconsciously, he is being exploited. As such, both religions (in the case of Moses) have the similarity of attaching oneself to a higher authority to seek superior benefits.

Many allegories that refer to Russian Revolutionists can be identified in the novel Animal Farm. Moses the Raven is one example. The Russian Orthodox Church is another. Due to their religious beliefs and strength, both were difficult to expel from Russia/the farm. After the Battle of the Windmill, Moses returned to the land. The church also made a comeback following World War 2. They realized the need for them. The belief in an afterlife maintained control over the Russian peasants and slaves, and demonstrated how religion can benefit a functioning society. The Russian Orthodox Christian Church and Moses also bonded with one another in the hope that they would gain something. The similarities between the three characters in Animal Farm are clear. They represent the Russian Orthodox Church’s 1917 revolution in a metaphorical, yet effective way.

Relevance Of The Color Purple From A Viewpoint Of History

Alice Walker’s The Color Purple carries immense historical and social significance over a 30-year span of time periods. The history of social issues and the historical significance they have over time will change as people age. The story of Miss Celie, an African-American woman from the south, who lived from the early 1900s to the mid 1900s, is a testament to the changes in her life. Walker uses Celie to represent what it means to grow and develop in America during a period when slavery had just been abolished. Celie can be seen as a representation of the entire black population that was mistreated by their male counterparts. Celie helped them to find their pride, value, and refuse to give in to the abuse they suffered. Walker contrasts this by using Nettie’s life to illustrate the horrible destruction of African culture in their pursuit of power, wealth and privilege. Walker then uses ShugAvery to further explore and explain the historical significance of Black culture and Harlem Renaissance. Walker, perhaps the most important aspect of her novel, uses the historical context to examine the presence and meaning of God. In fact, Walker uses the context of abuse and oppression to show how irrelevant it is for finding one’s purpose in life. The Color Purple is so richly filled with historical context and related analysis that it’s difficult to understand the novel without seeing the importance Walker’s masterful manipulations.

In the 1900s, there were many poor and marginalized communities of African Americans living in the South. This was because abuse was common and acceptable. Black Americans were also experiencing a shocking lack in education, as they had just received their basic human freedom. These two issues had a profound impact on Celie’s early years. She was molested and her stepfather abused her. He scolded her for not telling anyone except God. Mister, an abusive black man, abused her numerous times before selling her to her (Russell 27). Mister continued to abuse Celie in her childhood and perpetuated her rape. Walker, 59. “A grown child [was] dangerous in this historical culture.” Celie, as many others, was culturally appropriated abuse and degrading behavior. She was therefore an innocent, unworthy target. Celie eventually learns to confront her domestic oppressors. She demands to be treated as an individual. Mister is forced to recognize her dignity when she says subtly, yet powerfully, “I am here.” (Walker.196). Celie became strong as the United States’ women merged into one front demanding equality. Celie’s story is perfectly aligned by the Women’s Suffrage historical moment. It shows the importance and impact of massive societal, political, and personal events on a person’s daily life. Celie’s isolation from freedom and happiness is also due to the American African community being isolated due to a lack of education and tolerance. As Celie gained freedom and her voice, the United States made great strides in civil rights and gained freedom for the black community (Alice). Nettie escapes oppression, abuse and is allowed to attend school by her own merit and determination. Nettie “[wants] the world to work,” so she perseveres to find a home with a preacher family (7). The family and Nettie travel together as missionaries to a village in western Africa to visit the Olinka tribe. Nettie discovers her African heritage and the Olinka become a vibrant tribe in Africa. Nettie notes that her life in this land changes dramatically as she learns more about her heritage. In the pursuit of greed and wealth, Nettie’s village is destroyed. This village was destroyed by white Europeans without any regard for its culture or well-being, as the United States had done to black cultures. Nettie is watching as the white men destroyed the sacred roof-leaves of the village homes of the Olinka God. It was a new time for her, and it began in Africa. Nettie, her family and friends embark on the return voyage to home, after having spent a long time as refugees with Olinka. Their ship is then struck by German missiles. The story of Nettie, Celie and their lives after World War II begins is part of theirs.

Celie becomes more aware of the significance and history of Shug Avery’s entry into her life as a prominent singer from Memphis during Harlem Renaissance. Celie’s letters to her sister and God are the only way to tell The Color Purple. It is the most important aspect of Celie’s life. Shug shines a light on a dark period in Celie’s relationship to God, as she is angry at the circumstances that have been presented to her. Shug says to Celie that God is in you, and everyone else. God is the one who brings you into this world. Only those who search within can find it… God isn’t a he/she, but a It… Don’t be fooled by the appearance of nothing. It’s not a picture-perfect world. It’s not something that you can separate from anyone else, even yourself. God is everything to me. Everything that exists, has ever been or will remain. Walking, 148. “When you can feel it and feel happy to have that feeling, then you’ve found that.” Shug eliminates all relevance to place and time, stating that God can be anything. God is everything. It’s the very existence of purpose or being. It’s recognizing that every moment is important. Walker’s analysis of historical context and its significance in setting brings Walker’s final analysis full circle. It is the recognition of the beauty and purpose behind everything, regardless of the setting or context.

Works citées

“Alice Walker.” A&E Networks Television. Web. May 20th, 2016

An exploration of novel summaries via RSS feeds. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2016.Russell and Brenda, Allee Willis, Stephen Bray.

The Color Purple, a novel by Alice Walker, tells the story of a young African-American woman’s journey to find her voice in a patriarchal society. Alliance Theatre in Atlanta.

Walker, Alice. The Color Purple is a novel by Alice Walker. The book was first published in the United States by Harcourt Books in 1982.

Spiritual Fulfillmment And Escaping Emotional Isolation, Themes In The Heart Is A Lonely Hunter

Literature from all cultures has often featured the theme of man’s search to find spiritual fulfillment in his lifelong escape from emotion isolation. Carson McCullers is a feminist American author who has written The Heart is a Lonely Hunter. The story follows four individuals in search of spiritual fulfillment in their lives in the Deep South of the 1940s. McCullers makes a fictional universe of characters who long for a home spiritual. McCullers’s deep insight into loneliness and the transience in life gives readers a better understanding of humanity. He shows how man seeks out consolation from imaginary illusions that are not real. This human tendency to soothe loneliness by filling the emptyness of everyday, quotidian existence with imagination is represented in Jake Blount’s and Mick Kelley’s characters. In them, they find spiritual consolation through sharing their deepest, most private thoughts. Visitors believe John Singer to be all-knowing and able to understand their deepest desires and struggles. Singer’s ability to see the divine in others is only a mirror image of theirs. John Singer and his three visitors Blount/Copeland finally make it clear that the heart’s longing for spiritual fulfillment is not possible. Dr. Copeland, a black man oppressed in the Deep South’s racist society, longs for self expression and is the first person to call Singer a Christ-like character. Jan Whitt suggested that McCullers pointed out the weakness of self-reliance when she portrayed Copeland as confident, crying to his audience “we will save ourself…by dignity” (3). Contrary to her suggestions, Copeland actually strangles with his self-expression under the fa?ade Copeland uses of energy and conviction. He finds it difficult to find any hope in connecting with others. Copeland is vulnerable in his innermost self. His daughter asks him why he sits in the dark so much. Copeland is constantly depressed by his desire to show racial pride to his people. Singer, the deaf-mute, is often shown as being timorous or unmotivated in the novel. Copeland felt his deepest fears kept him from expressing himself fully. Singer was the only person who could understand what he had to say. Singer is most likely unable to interpret Copeland’s struggles as a deafman, but Singer has shown compassion and is nonetheless entrusted by Copeland’s idealistic deification. McCullers said that Copeland was described as “holding his head in the air…from his throat came a strange sound, reminiscent of a singing moan.” He was reminded of Singer’s smile behind the yellow match fire on that rainy nights–and peace was inside him” (77). Singer’s profundity might be an illusion. Singer is still able to offer Copeland great empathy through his racial wars with southern society. The novel paradoxically exempts readers from any engagement in real racial progress since Copeland has failed to achieve anything concrete. Copeland was a visionary in his racial struggles, and Singer is his spiritual dependency. However, Copeland himself fully represents McCullers’s view of man’s natural tendency to romanticize or deify others in order to alleviate their isolation and to console themselves when they fail. Blount is the lower class’s battered anima. As Copeland seeks spiritual renewal from Singer through his political struggles, Blount finds comfort in Singer’s camaraderie, as well. Blount’s confusion about God was reflected by a literary critic. It revealed the spiritual distortion within his soul that further magnifies Blount’s doubts and deepens his faithlessness in God. Blount wanders around town looking for spiritual belonging. However, he eventually falls for the deceitful trap of religion and is not able to find the Christ he desperately wanted. He is demoralized about religion and will openly share his views with Singer, with the hope that Singer’s quiet countenance might allow him to understand his deepest thoughts. Blount is clearly in pain from his word-wasting and Singer seems to be helping him express it. Singer cannot respond to any ordinary comment and he is disillusioned by everyone. Blount’s omniscient deification of Singer encourages Blount to speak his full mind and portrays the fact communications are the only access to love. McCullers explains in The Mortgaged Heart how “man feels a deep need to express his self by creating some unifying principle/God” (9). All people want Christ, McCullers believes, regardless of their definitions or beliefs. Blount picks a flesh-and blood hero to replace the prophet, drawing parallels with Christ and Singer. Singer’s calming fellowship, which heals Blount’s spiritual emptyness, is similar to Jesus’ healing of the sick and the poor. Blount’s inability to find God or the greater truth while living nomadic causes him instead to worship Singer as the ultimate God, an imagined figure that is only a reflection his idealistic traits. In contrast to Blount and Copeland’s struggles, Mick Kelley’s motivations are different. They reflect the younger, more feminine atmosphere of the 1940s and their quest for spiritual integration. Mick can overcome loneliness by listening to Beethoven’s works. Music is an echo of the soul. Mick feels the same as Blount, who found temporary spiritual belonging in the form of self-expression. She must enjoy Beethoven’s symphonies by herself, as she is the only one who appreciates music. This causes her to feel isolated and lonely. Mick finds inner comfort in Singer because Singer is a ‘homemade God’ that she can identify with. Singer’s selflessness makes his fellows long for the comfort of his quiet spirit. The room where he sits is a sign of acceptance. They meet the mute face-to-face and have a good time.” (Witt 8). Mick imagines Singer as the only one who can hear and understands the musical atmosphere. Singer’s inability to communicate with others is a sign of the fragility of language and self-expression. This is not possible through the clamor of cities. But it is possible to overcome the loneliness that has been afflicting us all. Mick’s deification of Singer by Mick further emphasizes the element and articulates her own view on delusional eification. Mick eventually realizes that Singer’s views are only illusions. As Mick matures, Mick’s music notes are less melodic and the jarring realities of society become more obvious. Mick realized that Singer is not a real God. The Lord was hushed… (McCullers 101-2). Retrospectively, Mick Kelley is young and inexperienced compared to Blount and Copeland, but she is the only one who can analyze Singer’s lionization. Mick finally sees the futility of Singer being made into a heroic figure. Her rational realization shows that illusionary deification can only lead to temporary spiritual fulfillment. Singer’s wide assortment of visitors represents a variety social, racial, and sexual positions. This implies that Singer’s failures in her individual quests cannot be reduced to one place, as everyone experiences discouragement. But Copeland and Blount are unable to grasp that the purveyors of peace and sanity are not peace. Singer is the “hunter” who has the most loneliness, even though he can soothe the pain of the others. Singer is described as the man with “gentle eyes so grave as a wizard’s”, McCullers 67. He idolizes Antonapoulos as a man psychologically incompetent who can’t replicate his emotions nor understand them. Singer and Antonapoulos have a relationship that is “humanistic, involving love and sexuality far removed from normal relationships” (Whitt 9). Singer’s devotion to Antonapoulos was unwavering and spiritual. They were always one in Singer’s waking thoughts. Singer’s inability or ability to speak, like Mick Kelley, Blount, or Copeland, gives him consolation. Singer, however, is unable to speak and relies on his imagination for his thoughts. This makes Singer a more spiritually devoted person, one whom he views as distinct from all the other deaf-mutes. Singer, too, needs other people and cannot live alone without a confidant. Singer is fundamentally different from the other people. Singer invests his whole self in his fantasized Antonapoulos, and Singer’s only source to happiness. Singer, however, is not the only one concerned. Their relationship with him resembles that between a psychiatrist and a patient. It is a place for projection and transfer (Murray 5). Singer sings of spiritual isolation. McCullers is McCullers’s regret over the rarity of selfless love. Singer is left feeling isolated and disillusioned by Antonopoulos’s passing. This results in a sense deceit that infects Mick and Blount. Copeland grows older and must speak again. Blount, who is searching for a missing messiah in a darkened village, stumbles into it and recalls the “all his innermost thoughts” that Singer told him. Mick is Mick’s eldest daughter. He was a Woolworth’s clerk. Singer’s suicide is more than a symbol of one man’s despair. He also single-handedly destroys the empty’ dreams and hopes of all his visitors. This demonstrates that deification does not provide permanent spiritual fulfillment. True escape from the perpetual loneliness of the soul lies in a kind of love which transcends the social and personal. The characters John Singer and his three visitors, Copeland and Blount, are recognizable not only because they share a common humanity, but also because the heart’s search for eternal fulfillment by ‘hunting’ is impossible. Brannon, the shopkeeper, expresses his view on this puzzled truth. He concludes that the answer to isolating loneliness may be beyond our reach. “Brannon saw a glimpse at human struggle…of the endless fluid passing of humanity through infinite time; of the laborers and the loved” (McCullers 30,). Singer’s visitors are disillusioned and combine to create an impression of man’s search for limitlessness. They also feel a connection with the universe. In this sense, their perceptions of boundaries might temporarily be erased as they have the ability to deify the divinity of others. Works cited McCullers and Carson. The human soul is a solitary creature that searches for something to fill its emptiness. North Carolina was published by Houghton Mifflin in 1940. Print. Murray, Jennifer. “Approaching community in Carson McCullers’s The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter.” Notes On Contemporary Literature, vol. 16, no. 1 (2004): 4-7. Bloom’s Literary Reference Online is an online resource that provides information about famous authors and their works. Web. 17 Mar. 2012.

. Jan Whitt examined the plight of the “loneliest hunter” in their article published in the Southern Literary Journal in 1992. They focused on the solitude experienced by a hunter and how it can be both a positive and negative experience. Twentieth-Century Literarycriticism. Ed. Linda Pavlovski. Vol. 155. Detroit: Gale, 2005. The Literature Resource Center is a source for information about authors and their works. Web. 5 Mar. 2012.


Plot Summary Of “The King Lear” By Shakespeare

Lear, the King Of Britain, decides to break his kingdom into three, but first he demands they express their love for him. Cordelia, the youngest of his three daughters, says nothing about her father to him. King Lear is furious and eventually disowns Cordelia. Cordelia was once the Duke of Burgundy’s choice for his wife. However, Lear informs him that Cordelia is no longer eligible for a dowry. Cordelia, however, is not allowed to go with the King. Lear furiously excommunicates Kent, Lear’s servant who tries telling his king he made mistakes. Lear splits the kingdom among Goneril & Regan. He then tells Kent that he will be living with both, each time accompanied at least 100 of his knights.

Edmund, the bastard son of Earl of Gloucester, is jealous over Edgar’s legitimate heir and plots to destroy his father-brother. Edmund tells Gloucester Edgar wants him to die. Edgar flees and pretends to be Tom O’Bedlam. Lear later goes to live at Goneril. She is furious at her father and his knights. Oswald orders her servants to rudely address Lear and his knights. Kent disguises himself and returns to Lear’s service. Goneril meets Lear finally when she tells her that she’s tired of his knights fighting and rioting. Lear, furious once more, leaves for Regan believing that she will make him feel more open and friendly. Lear is furious when Cornwall and Regan refuse to let him see them at the castle. Regan and Goneril finally meet Lear, and they tell him that they won’t allow him to stay with them unless all his knights are gone. Furious, Lear fled outside into the storm and his daughters barred him from the castle.

Kent then sets out to find Lear. A gentleman tells Kent that Lear is within reach. King Lear continues to rage, and Kent is trying to convince the Fool to allow him to go back to his girls and ask for shelter. Kent eventually finds Lear and leads him to shelter. Kent takes them to shelter in a nearby house, but Lear doesn’t want to go, so the Fool enters by himself. He leaves the shelter quickly and chases Tom O’Bedlam. Lear sees Edgar naked and asks him to take off his clothes. Gloucester discovers the clothes and attempts to convince the king to accompany him to the castle. Lear promises he will go, but only if Edgar is available to accompany him. He gives shelter to the group at his castle, and asks Kent for Cordelia to take Lear. Regan and Cornwall blind Gloucester after he returns to the castle.

After being kicked off the gates, Gloucester and Edgar are led to Dover. Oswald tries and kills Gloucester in Dover. But Edgar intervenes to stop Oswald. Lear wakes to see Cordelia. Cordelia forgives him and he is soon back in his normal state. The battle between the British and French armies takes place soon after. The British lose. Lear is captured by Cordelia and they are taken to prison. Edmund challenges Albany, and Edgar is named his champion. Both Edgar and Edmund duel. Edgar, who is then killed by Gloucester, reveals his identity to him after the duel. Edmund tells everyone about his orders for Cordelia’s execution. He also dies shortly afterwards. Goneril poisons Regan before she commits suicide. Finally, Lear discovers Cordelia has also died and then dies from grief.

Edgar Allan Poe: Influence In Horror And Poetry Itself

American writer Edgar Allan Poe (also known as an editor and literary critic) was a poet and short story writer. His focus was on horror and mystery. Poe was the son of two actors. His mother also died that year. After being orphaned, he was adopted by John & Francis Allan. He lived with them as a neglected boy and participated in many military activities. However, he eventually dropped out of West Point. Poe was a powerful and influential writer worldwide. His use and influence of literary devices allowed him to be an influential author amongst many well-known modern writers.

Poe’s use of literary devices in poetry and short stories was a hallmark of his work. There are many literary devices that Poe used, including dramatic irony, foreshadowing and repetition. Fortunato’s tragic adventure that led to his death was shown through Fortunato’s use of foreshadowing. He uses dramatic irony in “The Cask of Amontillado,” which shows Fortunato’s ignorance of what was to come in the catacombs. The reader is assisted by his use of alliteration in “The Raven”, rhyme, onomatopoeiassonance, repetition and repetition. “While, I pondered weakly and weary” is an illustration of an alliteration. “TAP TAP TAP TAP,” the Raven’s chant, is another example of an onomatopoeia. Poe’s repeated repetition of “Nevermore” in every verse creates a feeling of sadness and sets the tone for the whole poem. Poe was an expert in symbolism and made use of it to its fullest extent in all of his works. Multiple examples of symbolism are found in the story “The Pit and the Pendulum”. The pit is the place of hell. He tried to escape once, but was forced back by the walls. The pendulum, which represents the impossibility of stopping time, swings in accordance with the beat of the narrator. The raven enters “The Raven” with an assertive attitude, always reminding us of our mortality. The Bust of Pallas stands for Pallas Athena. She is the Greek goddess of wisdom and where the raven rests. It shows the Raven’s wisdom, much like the Greek goddess. Anadiplosis can be used when the last sentence or words are used in the following sentence. This is a great example of Poe’s use of anadiplosis in “The Pit and the Pendulum”. He wrote “…That my imagination could not force me to consider unreal. Unreal-even as I breathed.” and “For the instant at last, it was liberating. The inquisition had me free and at my disposal This literary device gives life to the story in a dramatic way and intensifies the impact of the situation.

The Black Cat is an Edgar Allan Poe story that is full of horror and shock. Many themes are covered, including violence and alcoholism as well as his remorse. The story is told first-person. At one point, the narrator takes the reader to his home and shows him that he was happy. The young couple are both passionate about animals, and they have plenty. This is a Poe-story and everything goes horribly wrong. In no time, the home scene transforms into a story of domestic abuse and even murder. His irrational behavior and decisions eventually destroy and devastate his life. Pluto was the name that the narrator gave the black cat, which he loved very much. Poe is fond of using the names of greek and roman mythology gods or goddesses in his works. The name Poe gives the black cat is also the Roman name for the underworld. This is a metaphorical name that has a hidden message. The story shows how harmful alcoholism can be. When the narrator began drinking, he started domestically abusing his wife, and neglected the animals. Poe could have also used this story to address the “Temperance Movement”.

Poe created the Temperance movement to try and convince people that alcoholism was dangerous. The nature alcoholism made it easy for the narrator indulge in violence. The narrator began to have a bad temper and started doing gruesome things like goinguge the black cat’s eye, then eventually he killed his wife with an electric axe through the head. The narrator’s violent temper and his temper eventually lead to the destruction of his entire family. He mentions in the beginning: “But tomorrow I die, but to-day would unburthen me soul.” and he is currently in prison writing about what led to his death to try to liberate himself. Poe’s impact after his death led to the formation of the “Art for Art’s Sake”, a movement which was known for its predecessor in the 19th century. There are two key points to Poe’s theory of success in literature. The first is that the work has to have one effect on readers. Second, this work should have one effect. It shouldn’t be left to chance. Poe states in his essay “The Poetic Principle”, that a poem doesn’t need to have an extremely deep meaning to be considered one. It is as valuable and even more so than a poem with a deep meaning. It would be obvious that there is nothing more satisfying than a poem written without any reason other than to write a poem.

Art for Art’s sake is a concept which rejects the role of art as a tool for political or religion. Instead, it allows poets, artists, and authors more creative freedom. It’s the belief that art doesn’t need to be justified and that art is beautiful in its own right. The song “Art for Art’s Sake” is a reference to English art history and letters to Don Walter Pater, an Oxford-based artist and leader of the aesthetic movement. Art was used in many religions. Art for Art’s Sake was an attempt to rebel against that. Many academic painters felt that they had a responsibility to present art with Christian morality, while modernists wanted more freedom. Modernists believed art should be created not for the sake of the general public but for its own purposes. The conservative middle-class values that emphasized the importance of art being made for society and religion was soon to challenge the movement. Art for Art’s Sake was a vital component of discussions on censorship and art’s significance during the Postmodernism era. Advertising and finally film became increasingly important parts of everyday life. Also, art can be created with computers, including graphic design, animation, and graphic design.

Edgar Allan Poe’s time in life was not filled with the best experiences. Some may even call it a very tragic end. He was alive at the time and was being critiqued by many people who didn’t like his dark poetry or his storytelling style. Poe was a journalist and editor for magazines. He wrote many essays, poems and reviews. His job as a writer and critic was to expose bad writing, authors, and demand that American literature be held to higher standards. Poe was nicknamed the “Tomahawk Man” because he was a vicious critic. He was a stern critic and caused problems for his magazine. Poe would eventually make New York his home in 1844. He would publish “The Raven”, which would become a literary phenomenon and boost his popularity. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow criticized Longfellow’s writings during 1844. Poe claimed Longfellow copied his work. He was retaliated to. Poe’s harsh criticism made him enemies. Rufus Griswold, a writer known for his harsh criticisms of Poe, tarnished Poe’s image by portraying him as a drunk who abuses women physically and mentally. The first biography of Poe was then created by Griswold, which only fuelled the flames and further perpetuated the myths. Griswold did this in revenge for Poe’s harsh criticisms of Griswold’s work.

Poe didn’t find any financial success during his lifetime. His work is today America’s most popular gothic story. It presents great horror, mystery, and suspense. Many modern readers were moved by his stories of shock. He made great literary choices to let readers immerse themselves into his stories.

Works cited

Zappia, Susie. “Influence of Edgar Allan Poe on American Culture.” What Student Learn From Dissecting a Cow’s Eye | Education – Seattle PI, 21 Nov. 2017,

“Edgar Allan Poe.” Poetry Foundation, Poetry Foundation,

“Art for Art’s Sake.” Ohio River – New World Encyclopedia, New World Encyclopedia,

Garland, Tyler. “Login.” Teen Ink, 28 May 2008,

The experts at Shmoop provide editorial services. “The Black Cat Analysis.” Shmoop, Shmoop University, 11 Nov. 2008,

Alice Walker’s Description Of The Idea Of The Household As Illustrated In Her Book, Everyday Use

The Legacy of the Home

Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use” reveals Dee’s resentful attitude to the Johnson household. It reflects her shameful views about her family’s heritage and how they interpret it.

Mama, Maggie, Dee give detailed descriptions of their house. These descriptions show how Dee perceives her family. Mama, the narrator (1226) describes the yard as “more comfortable that most people know…like a large living room.” Maggie and Mama had taken great care of it (1226). This yard is now homely. The yard is their refuge and sanctuary from the harsh outside world. The narrator is shocked to realize that Dee will destroy the yard. I was once told by her that she would come to see us no matter where we live. She will not bring her friends (1228). Dee’s feelings are shameful and disillusioned by the difference made between Dee’s care and Dee’s. Dee takes great pride when Mama and Maggie clean the house, while Dee views the house as a blank slate. But you wouldn’t believe it if you saw Mama and Maggie living their lives. Dee’s modern thinking makes it difficult to accept the house she grew up with, Maggie and Mama giving her a polaroid and naming a new name. It also causes more discord within the family. “Everyday Use”, set after the Black Power movement of 1970s, depicts the misguided legacy Dee places onto the house. Dee says that she “never takes a photo without including the house” (1229). Walker is clear from the start that Dee’s family home is an integral part of her memories. Dee’s fascination with the house’s history, antiquity, and architecture turns into a materialistic obsession. She says, “I can use a churn top for the alcove tables” and refers to her Grandma who had quilts. (1231, 1232). Dee is using the house as a means to fulfill her false senses about heritage. Dee’s views on modern Black Power clash with her mother. Mama says Dee can’t enjoy the quilts !…She won’t probably be able to use them for everyday use Mama continues to question Mama’s understanding of the family’s differences, asking her: “What do you not understand?” ‘Your heritage.’ [Dee] said” (1232). Dee’s misinterpretation on culture is the time period in which the Johnsons are living, in which black people would be proud of their ancestors.

Walker used the Johnson’s household to explain Dee’s obvious differences with her family. Dee’s position in the family is clear from their different perspectives. Dee is trying to maintain her black culture through different means such as changing or using family heirlooms. Mama and Maggie aren’t inclined to reevaluate the meaning of being a black person. They illustrate the difference in values that were experienced during the confusing times after the Civil Rights Movement.