The Main Themes In ‘all The Light We Cannot See’ By Anthony Doerr

Over the years, many great authors have created novels. As time goes on, some literature pieces may become forgotten or irrelevant to younger generations. Sometimes certain topics no longer interest readers. For a novel’s relevance to remain, the theme or topic must always be something that connects with readers. The topic or theme must relate to an issue that affects all generations. The author can make it so memorable it will last for many years.

Anthony Doerr’s novel All the Light We Cannot see is a good example. This is achieved by the author through characterisation and conflict which can be connected to readers. The best novels will endure for many generations. The theme is what makes a novel stand out. This theme must be able to connect with readers so strongly that it will endure over time. The theme can be used to illustrate the struggles that a person must overcome. It was important to keep the story relevant to today’s readers.

A novel can be based on themes such as the meanings of small actions or the contrast of free will with predetermination. Many times, people think that insignificant actions have no significance. However, they are often more important than they realize. Etienne Lablanche used to broadcast a radio program. Etienne broadcasted his science lessons with the hope that someone might hear them, but he didn’t believe anyone heard it. Werner Pfennig, who he did not know had heard the broadcast, confirmed that it was him. Who broadcasted science lessons. They were broadcast by my sister when I was a kid. Ettine’s broadcast was deemed to be insufficient by Werner, but it actually helped him find his passion. Werner knew he would have to go to the coalmines once he turned fifteen. So he desperately seeks a solution to this fate. Werner followed this path throughout the novel.

The author wants to show readers that a seemingly insignificant act can actually have a much greater impact on someone else than they might think. It is a common occurrence in real life, but not something that everyone notices. It proves that all actions have an impact and are significant.

People don’t always understand the difference between free will and predetermination. People tend to assume the opposite or blame themselves for having no control of their lives. Marie-Laure talked to Werner and said that people thought she was brave because of her blindness. My life is changed when I wake. Wener responds, “Not for years.” Today maybe I did. But today. This scene illustrates the difference between predetermination and free will. She thought that her fate was set and she didn’t have any control. Werner’s life was taken from him. She has more control than Werner. Werner’s life has been controlled for years and he does not have any control over the decisions he makes. The author’s words make it clear that people are in control of their lives more than they believe. The author is saying that those who choose not to control their lives will be susceptible to manipulation from others. They also lose all senses of freewill. This refers back to people feeling like they don’t control their lives. The reader can relate to this more because they’ve experienced similar circumstances.

Compassion, Fear And Pity In The Inferno

Dante reacts with compassion and fear to the suffering of the infidels. Dante frequently shares the pain and suffering of sinners. The Latin root for compassion is “to suffer along with”. In Canto XX he cries on behalf of the magicians. He laments, “tears poured down from their [sinners] eyes / and they bathed both buttocks – running down into the cleft.” It is obvious that I wept (XX 23-25). He is rendered speechless by his pity, as he states, “I can’t [speak], pity has taken my heart” (XIII.84). Dante has a deep empathy for Francesca and Paolo. In his words: “while a spirit (Francesca] told me these words, / another [Paolo] sobbed, that I – due to pity- / fainted. As if I’d met my end” (V.139-41). Dante is able to feel the pain of sinners through his reactions. Dante is unable to see that sinners are responsible for their own punishment. His compassion makes him question God’s morality.

Canto II begins with Dante recalling: “I myself/alone prepared to endure the battle/both of the journey and the pity.” (II,3-5). Dante’s pilgrimage to hell will be a journey of discovery for Dante, as this introduction highlights pity. Dante was able to see hell as long as he was alive due to Dante’s pity. Beatrice, Dante’s ex-lover, pities Virgil when he loses his way and is lost in the woods. She asks Virgil for help. Virgil recollects that Beatrice, after requesting Virgil’s service, “turned aside her gleaming tears” (II.116). Dante allows compassion to cloud his emotions as Beatrice does when she expresses her pity.

Dante’s compassion gets worse in Canto XV. When he recognises Brunetto as a Florentine, it becomes a problem. Dante’s eagerness to converse with a sinner is evident in his writing: “I went with my head bowed / like a man going with reverence”(XV,43-44). Dante changes his moral compass with this gesture. Contrary religious doctrine, it seems that he admires or reveres a gay man. Dante goes on to contest God’s punishment towards Brunetto. He says, “If God answered my desire totally,/you’d still / be / with humanity and not exiled from it” (XV. 79-81). Dante shows pity towards Brunetto, but does not mention the sin.

Virgil demonstrates restrained pity in response to Dante’s concern that Dante’s face appears flushed. Virgil explains why he has a pale complexion, saying that “the anguish / whose home is below me, touched my cheek / with compassion you mistake for terror” (IV. 19-21). Virgil pities ancient poets who have been condemned to a lifetime in Limbo. Virgil continues to show that his compassion, unlike Dante’s, is measured. He says that pity, unlike faith, is inferior. Virgil represents the human mind and affirms God’s law. Dante is admonished for his tears, which he sheds on behalf of the Eighth Circle. Virgil admonishes Dante, saying “Are you just as stupid as the others?” Virgil asks Dante if he is as foolish as the rest.

Dante gets deeper and deeper into hell. The more he does, the less he feels the pain. Dante tells a sinner who refuses his name that he will not have a single hair on top of his head if he doesn’t identify himself. (XXXII 98-99) Dante’s threat is carried out, as the sinner refuses to budge. “I pluck from him more that one tuft/while he was screaming and his eyes looked down” (XXXII 104-105). This Dante is in stark contrast to his earlier Cantos. In this case, he is not reacting to the suffering of a sinner but inflicting it. Dante in this scene acts as if he were God, punishing the Florentine traitor for his evil deeds and recognizing him as such. Dante’s moral character changes after this encounter. He not only endorses, but also practices the harsh punishments consistent with God’s Justice.

Dante’s response seems to conflate fear and compassion with his own sin. God’s judgement is used to justify his salvation based on Dante’s experiences in hell. Dante’s morals are linked with those who suffer. He says in Canto V that he fainted “because of pity” when describing Francesca’s and Paolo’s tragedy. (V,140-141). Dante may be pitying the lovers by equating his fainting with dying. The possibility of eternal hellfire and sin is a constant source of anxiety for him. Dante’s trepidation leads him to initially forgive sinners. “Pity” / took hold of him, and he was lost like a man (V, 71-72). Dante’s judgment has been clouded by pity. He only learns, at the end, to reconcile it with God’s harsh justice.

Dante’s quest for spiritual understanding is underlined by his innate desire to be redeemed. In the end, Dante travels to hell to learn about God’s moral standards and strengthen his moral compass. This transformation is vital because before he can reach heaven, he needs to have a very strict moral code. Dante’s Divine Comedy does not end with the Inferno. Purgatoria followed by Paradiso is where he continued his journey.

Understanding Emotions And Feelings In The Giver By Lois Lowry

Imagine a world where your every move is monitored by cameras in your home, at school, in the cafeteria, and that everything you say will be recorded. Imagine not being able to feel emotions or feelings. You would have no memory of your past and you wouldn’t be able to see colour. The Giver is a novel by Lois Lowry that revolves around the character Jonas, an eleven-year old boy living in a controlled community where all emotions, pain, and fear have been eliminated. The couples who want children must apply. The Elders assign everyone a role within the community and all children, including Jonas, must attend the “Ceremony of Twelves” at twelve years old. The Elders then assign jobs to each 12 year old based upon their talents and interests. Jonas has been selected to receive memories. The Elders tell him that the job is physically painful. Jonas receives training from The Giver, a very elderly man who has the collective memories. Jonas is also taught memories related to colours by The Giver, as Jonas has no ability to see colors. Other memories include those of betrayal, sadness, happiness and pain. The memories are gone once Jonas receives them from The Giver. Jonas has been forbidden from telling anyone about his training. This includes his family. The word release is often used in the book to mean injecting a liquid into someone’s body. Jonas was so upset when he saw his father kill a child without him knowing it. He then made a plan to share the memories of happiness, pain and the ability to see colors with the community. They have the right to know about their feelings and freedom. In this essay, I will discuss the importance and value of memory, courage, and building a strong relationship with the family/mentor in The Giver.

It is difficult to remember colors if you do not have the memory to refer to them. In The Provider, Jonas’s inability to remember emotions and feelings makes him consider the kind of society he is living in. Jonas is also aware that his life will be dull and boring without color. He won’t even be able to recognize Fiona. He also realizes, not only that he doesn’t have the ability to see color but that he has to rely upon The Giver for him to remember what colors are. He is a regular at his training classes where he encounters the Giver. One time, Jonas stated that he could see something and it would disappear.

The Giver told the children:

Jonas responded, “The What?”

The Giver’s signature. “How do you explain that? “Once, in the past, when memories were fresh, things had shapes and sizes, just as they do today, but also a quantity known as colour”.

This quote shows how they were living in an environment without diversity. Everyone has no feelings and memories. The author wants to impress upon its readers the importance of memory and how without it, you wouldn’t be able to feel emotions or feelings. Quotes from this chapter help readers to better understand feelings, such as “When memories are received, the reader has the ability to look beyond”. Then you’ll gain joy and wisdom, as well as colours and much more. This quote helps you to understand feelings and emotions. It shows the power of memories, which can go beyond the present and express happiness when they are happy. It can also show different emotions depending on the memory. In conclusion, memories can be important. They may teach you valuable lessons in life, which will allow you to make more informed decisions. Jonas wouldn’t know what pain feels like if The Giver wasn’t there. Lois Lowry uses the quote “The worst thing about holding memories isn’t the pain.” The loneliness is the worst part. Memories must be shared. The quote above proves to the reader that they will understand emotions and feelings if memories aren’t shared. The Giver told him that some memories can be warm and joyful. Jonas may not be able to recall the name of this holiday, but the warmth it brings him is unforgettable. He also discovers that the House of the Old does not treat old people with disrespect and that Jonas has no idea who his grandparents are.

Jonas inquired, “What do you remember most fondly?”

The Giver grinned. The Giver smiled.

Jonas could feel the happiness as soon a memory started. He was in the middle of a warm room with people. He could see through a window that there were colored lights: yellow, green, and red.

The Giver then asked “What perception did you have?”

Jonas replied: “Warmth makes me happy and brings to mind my family.”

Lois Lowry’s quote demonstrates that the reader understands some emotions by describing what family, happiness and warmth are.

Jonas’s character is defined by his great qualities. This helps readers understand his character. Lois demonstrates many great qualities about him in the book. She shows caring, responsibility, honesty, and not taking things back. Jonas accepts all challenges and does not give up. He even asks the Giver for his painful memories. Jonas said, “When I see The Giver in pain, it’s like he is trying to understand my feelings and emotions.”

‘But Giver, I’ve never suffered. Jonas laughed. I remember how you burned me the first time. It wasn’t that bad. What makes you so miserable? Your pain might lessen if I shared it with you.

The quote shows readers that they have an understanding and knowledge of emotions. It shows how Jonas feels bad for Thegiver because he’s been carrying painful memories around for years. The Giver plans to have Jonas run away from the community to share these memories, but he brings Gabe because he was told that Gabe had been released as a result of not meeting the standards set by society. Jonas is able to leave the community because of Gabriel and The Provider. Without them, he would be too scared and wouldn’t do it. Jonas realizes that if Gabe is caught with him, they’ll both die. Yet he continues to do it because he wants to save other lives. His journey will be exhausting and cause him to starve. “He looked exhausted. He knew it was time to go to bed and rest his muscles, preparing him for the next few hours of riding a bicycle. “It would be unsafe to travel during daylight”. This quote is a way of saying that Jonas must care for himself in order to keep Gabe safe without being caught. That shows emotion, since it shows the amount Jonas cares about Gabe. Jonas shows Gabe his caring by transferring the memory of a windy day to calm him down and keep him from panking. Before he left, he had placed his hands firmly against Gabe’s neck and transferred to him the most calming memory he was able to: a swinging hammock in the palm trees. This quote gives the reader a deeper understanding of feelings because it implies that Jonas will do anything to make Gabe comfortable and safe.

In order to better understand emotions and feelings, characters need to establish a strong relationship. Lois Lowry pushed Jonas to establish close relationships throughout the entire book with Thegiver, Gabe, and his family. The Giver, or Jonas’ mentor, has a very different relationship than any of his other relationships. His relationship with The Giver, is much more open-minded due to the rules that Jonas learned from his training manual. One of Jonas’s rules was to “be exempted for rudeness from this moment on”. You can ask any question to any citizen, and you’ll get an answer. It is clear from this quote that Jonas can ask any question and his relationship with The Provider is more open-minded. This quote is more open-minded because Jonas needs to follow certain rules in order to find out anything. He does not just answer his questions; he also explains and guides him. The Giver answered Jonas’ question about what the word “release” meant by showing him video footage of a dying baby being injected by the father who was the nurturer. The Giver comforted Jonas after he started crying, shouting, and pounding his bed with a fist. You have something to say to me. But you have to keep quiet, as I call your family. This quote proves Jonas’ relationship with the Giver. He is willing to communicate and let Jonas share his emotions towards the release of an infant child. It shows that the Giver has a deep understanding of emotions, as Jonas’s heart is broken and he tries to calm Jonas down while also showing him care. Jonas not only had a great relationship with Thegiver, but also with Gariel. The Giver instructs Jonas on how to love. Jonas also learns from Thegiver to comfort Gabriel with positive memories. Jonas indirectly learns to be less selfish by sharing memories with Gabe. Jonas shares memories like the cool breezes that blow across the lakes, or the snow. “He wasn’t aware that he gave the memory. However, suddenly he realized it was getting darker and was sliding out of his hands. Jonas is not afraid to continue transferring memories even when Gabe begins crying at night. By transferring his memories, Jonas shows the reader that he doesn’t really care about them disappearing. He knows he won’t be able retrieve the memories once he shares them. This quote teaches the reader to be less selfish and more caring. Jonas also establishes an intimate relationship with both his parents. Jonas now trusts and loves his parents even more, but he no longer participates in their daily routines like dream telling. His training has prevented him. In his book, it stated that “You are forbidden from dream-telling as of this moment”. Jonas can feel sad when he feels that he has lost their friendship. Jonas, in the evening following The Giver’s Christmas memory gift to him, bravely asks whether his parents love him. Jonas said, “Do You Love Me?” There was a awkward silence. Father laughed. “Jonas!” You are the most unlikely person. This quote shows that they laughed and told him to be precise with his language. It was against community rules. The quote shows that Jonas is sad that his parents are unaware of the meaning of love. This helps readers understand feelings and emotions because it describes the sadness of his parents not knowing what love means. He is always supported by his parents and they help him through puberty and when he struggles. His parents would not have been able to tell him what kind of dreams were coming. The stirrings were the other word for it. “When his mother finally sat beside him, you felt the stirrings. Everyone goes through puberty. It happens to everyone”.

Readers will gain a deeper understanding of feelings and emotions by learning the importance of memory and having positive traits like bravery. Jonas learns to value memory, and he realizes how boring his life can be without color. Not only does he understand colour, but also the different feelings that each memory evokes. It is true that some memories can cause discomfort, pain and joy. But the important thing to remember is that without memories we cannot feel emotions or feelings. It’s important to have good traits of character because they help define who we truly are. This helps readers understand Jonas better. Jonas displays bravery by not backing down when faced with a challenge. He asks to be told more about painful memories when he observes The Giver in pain. Relationships with family members and with Thegiver are crucial to understanding his emotions. Without these relationships, he likely would not have understood what stirrings meant.

Works Cited

The answer is the same.

Lois Lowry The Giver Dell Laurel leaf, 2002.

Palahniuk’s View Of Society

Literary history is a reflection of the social climate at the time. In this way, the great works in literary history were often seen as reflections of various social issues, wars or political movements that took place during the time they were written. Chuck Palahniuk stands out as one of America’s most prominent contemporary writers. Palahniuk, who made his first literary appearance in 1996 with Fight Club and the film adaptation featuring Brad Pitt & Edward Norton, is now considered an icon of American modern literature.

I will focus my essay on the way Palahniuk portrays society in his novels. Fight Club will be the main focus of my essay, due its popularity internationally and the ongoing debate among critics. Then I will present some of my own ideas about how Palahniuk portrays society. Lastly, I’ll mention and analyze some of both the criticisms and praises directed towards Palahniuk. In this essay, I’ll attempt to show Palahniuk’s influence on American literature.

Palahniuk has been the subject of scholarly criticism for his views on society and violence. Many critics say that his main characters represent current American society or the entire world. His characters are known to often rebell against established social and politic systems. Palahniuk’s main characters often rebel against existing social and political systems. Is he saying that Americans can be violent? Can we limit Palahniuk’s critique of politics to the postmodern age?

Charles Michael Palahniuk is a US citizen born in Washington in 1962. His lastname is of Ukrainian descent. He was fourteen when his parents separated. He attended Columbia High School and then the University of Oregon. He received a BA from the University in journalism in 1986. Chaplinsky states that Palahniuk was also a mechanic, and worked at a hospital. Fight Club (1996), Invisible Monsters (1999), Survivor (1998), Diary (2003) and Beautiful You (2015) are some of his most notable novels.

Peter Mathews offered an interesting argument for Palahniuk’s views on society, as seen in his novels. According to him, Tyler Durden is a fascist because of his idealistic leadership. Mathews claims that fascism as an ideology is not just a leftist/rightist movement. It’s also a mixture of both. He claims fascism to be “fundamentally” nihilist, which is exactly what Palahniuk and his protagonists are.

Fight Club was often interpreted by many of the critics of Palahniuk as a commentary on the political climate of the time. Mathews and I both believe that the existentialist style of his writing critiques not just its current political state, but its entire society, as well as human nature in general. “Fight Club isn’t just a critique of the “postmodern” era, it also criticizes the nature of human behavior and society in general. This claim was made by Mathews as well.

Henry Giroux was a scholar critic. He wrote: “Fight Club offers a critique on late capitalist societies and the misfortunes they generate” (Giroux, 2001). Mathews argues Giroux refers to Palahniuk’s works as “a symptom a cynicism contemporary culture, a new trend in American Culture”. (Mathews, 2005, 81)

Mathews, in an essay, argues Tyler Durden’s role as a character by Palahniuk is fascist. It is important to understand that fascism does not represent a rightist or a leftist movement. In fact, all authoritarian ideologies were leftist in the beginning. Palahniuk wished to warn his readers against blindly following any movement they find appealing.

Fight Clubs must have a leader and their own set of rules. This is indeed fascist. The paradoxical nature of such a club is, to my mind, a key element in this novel. It contains angry men who are not happy with their everyday lives and a culture dominated by consumerism. Palahniuk is commenting on the human condition: We want to live as a part of a society, which requires that rules are applied to all. It’s not known if this is a political statement.

Palahniuk s Survivor gives another example. The main character in this book is the only survivor from a secret suicide cult. This cult has a final rule, which is to commit suicide. This is an “enlightenment”, a kind of new beginning. This society is a suicide society. Antonio Casado de Rocha wrote in an essay that “Survivor is parody of American religion, but its narrator only wants to be redeemed and accepted back into human society.”

There is another group that follows blindly rules. This fanaticism, which is also an obvious criticism, is directed at the mass media’s influence on today’s craze. It’s also what I understood as Palahniuk expressing his thoughts about human nature.

Critique and ApprovalThe reception towards Palahniuk’s books is quite diverse. Some love his work, and others are critical. In either case, there are many different ways to understand his novels. The meanings of Palahniuk’s characters and ideas are all interpreted differently.

Jesse Kavadlo says that Palahniuk’s nihilism is the result not of external but internal struggles. Kavadlo writes in his essay Chuck Palahniuk: Closet Moralist that the rebellious narrator of Palahniuk is actually fighting himself.

Palahniuk continues by saying that his writing is influenced personally. This perspective helps us move away from the belief that Palahniuk’s novels criticize society and allows us to see him in a more rounded light. To me, his novels reflect a mixture of the two. Although his novels do indeed comment on society and modern life, they also reflect his own opinions, his struggles, and the experiences of his life.

Not all reviews are positive. Laura Miller was one of those who gave a negative review.

She is opposed to Kavadlo and says: “This issue is inherent to his books: Everyone sounds like Chuck Palahniuk.” They are either in a gleeful sloganeering anger or a sullen, self-pitying mood. (Miller 2003)

Why do there seem to be such a variety of opinions? There are theories which suggest that Palahniuk actually fused different political ideologies in order to highlight everything wrong with our society. Mathews suggested that Palahniuk had deliberately used fascists or communists. Some critics, however, dismiss Palahniuk completely as a nihilist and a boring author who is incapable of creating a meaningful plot. They also claim that he writes complex novels with no ideas.

I think that readers should be careful to read Palahniuk’s novels, because he gives clues at the end of every chapter. Also, we should consider his novels in their entirety. It’s possible that the original idea was to not create the most complex of characters or stories, but instead to react to irrationalism in the world.

A certain thing is evident from all the feedback, both positive and adverse, on Palahniuk. If an author has been criticized and reviewed in such a mixed manner, and is called one of today’s greatest writers, but also receives harsh criticism and anger from his critics, then there must be a valid reason. There are articles written about his main novels, his political and psycho-social complexities, and his unique humor.

In my seminar paper, I tried to present different perspectives of Palahniuk’s society. Using other scholars’ work, I began by describing his political commentary. Mathews, in Fight Club’s Tyler Durden character, explains how Palahniuk is criticizing capitalism. Kavadlo Miller provided commentary to help me gather opposing criticisms. This part was intended to highlight different perspectives on Palahniuk’s views of society. It is impossible for an author to remain anonymous when they are pointing out the worst aspects of society.

Marxist Literary Criticism Of “Grinch Stole Christmas”

The Grinch is a green, hairy creature with a grin from ear-to-ear in the film How the Grinch Stole Christmas (2000). He has lived in a cave at the top of a mountain, with Max, his only and loyal friend. When he was a young child, he fled from other children because of bad experiences. The isolation he felt led to an uncontrollable hatred towards Christmas and a thirst of revenge.

How the Grinch Stole Christmas is a literary work that, while it has traits in common with other literary criticisms and socio-political criticisms as well as Marxism, falls primarily under Sociopolitical or Marxist criticism. While it may not be a moral critique, the story does contain some elements, such as comparing the values between the Whos and the Grinch.

Marxism views capitalism and class struggles as the causes of social problems. This is the view of the Grinch, who believes that the Whos are the capitalists in his society that make him feel alienated because he can’t buy the things they can. The Grinch “hates Christmas” because he feels he is not a part of the Christmas season due to his socio-economic status.

Marxism “criticises[es]] texts which assume [a] classist society based on economic elitism,” but “champion[s]” texts supporting the “commonman.” The Grinch clearly isn’t a “commonman” in Whoville because he can’t afford the “toys,” “Whoroast Beasts,” and other things that seem so important to the Whos. The Grinch is troubled by this, because he believes that material goods are what makes people happy, and he doesn’t have any of these things.

He is shocked to learn that Christmas did not come with ribbons or tags. The Whos didn’t care about money or goods. The Grinch thought that Christmas was all about material. When he found out that it didn’t “come in a store”, he “gave three sizes to his small heart”.

Marxism is an economic theory that attempts to create a society that is more just and fair. In The Grinch Took Christmas, the Grinch was convinced that stripping away everything from the Whos will bring them down to his economic level. They would then all experience his unhappy life. Dr Seuss shows that after realizing the importance of material wealth, the distribution of love will bring happiness to the village.

Moira’s Roles In The Handmaid’s Tale By Margaret Atwood

People try to hold on to a memory or thought of someone or an idea that has given them hope. This gives hopeless people the belief that things can improve. Offred is the protagonist in Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale. She faces both internal and exterior conflicts while living within the totalitarian Gilead society. The narrator tells Offred the story of her rebellious, strong friend Moira. It gives her new hope and makes it easier for her to live in Gilead. Moira has several roles in the book. She is Offred’s friend, providing her with memories to help her cope as a handmaid. Moira also serves as the voice and example of reason in the tale, a woman of inspiration to the other Handmaids, and the symbol of hope for women. Moira represents hope and courage to the narrator. Most other women are either brainwashed or have lost these qualities.

Offred is only sane because of her memory of Moira. Offred’s memory of Moira reminds her of the Boston she knew before Gilead. Offred remembers Moira’s time at college and how the two of them took everything for granted. “Let’s get a drink.” The paper was due the following day. What was the paper? Psychology, English, Economics. Then, we studied the same things. It is evident from Moira’s conversation that women are restricted in Gilead. It is forbidden for them to smoke or consume alcohol and reading or writing by women is prohibited. It is important to remove the need for education in order to limit women’s abilities to communicate, and thus reduce their chances of rebelling. Gilead is able to control all women’s lives. Offred remembers Moira’s comment that “Once the women start to get age spots, they think they have to beat their competition.” The pornomarts (Atwood, 50). This flashback refers to the clothes and lingerie that were worn in the past society. Due to their rank, women now wear only conservative long dresses with bonnets in different colours. Gilead also prohibits makeup and porn. Offred says that this kind of conversation used to be normal in their society. Offred feels hatred towards the commander who is outside her window in this chapter. She considers throwing or spitting the Faith cushion outside the window to hit him. The narrator describes a time that she and Moira sprayed “paper bags full of water”. Water bombs (…) Dropping them from my dorm’s window on the heads below the boys” (Atwood, 58). Offred uses the funny memory of Moira with her to suppress her anger towards the commander. This prank had been played in good humor before Gilead and no one got punished. The narrator will not throw anything towards the commander for fear of a harsh punishment if he disgraced a powerful man. Offred remembers fondly her friendship with Moira and how it helped her stay afloat during the difficult society of Gilead.

Moira is a voice of logic in the book. She uses evidence and logic to help the women make decisions, which Gilead tries taking away. The narrator fears that her close friend will disapprove of her secret love affair and her late-night conversations with the commander. She said that I rationalized in the past when she disproved her affair with Luke. I told her I was in love. She said it was not an excuse. Moira always had a better sense of logic than I did” (Atwood 172). Moira tells Offred in a direct and unbiased way that her affair with Luke, her husband now, is morally wrong. The narrator believes that Moira is not going to approve of the relationship between her and Commander. It’s unethical. Offred remembers in a flashback that Moira once slapped Janine for being out of control. Moira said, “Snap Janine. They’re not going to waste time with you. You won’t be sent to the Colonies. You are taken to a chemistry-lab and shot if you’re too distant. “Then they burn up your garbage, like a Unwoman.” Offred remembers Moira attempting to reason with Janine, while the others women looked on. Moira tells Janine to be normal in front of the aunts, if she doesn’t want to die a sad and short death. Nick stares at Offred in the night while she is hungry for love. Offred, realizing that Luke cannot be replaced by Nick, remembers Moira once saying, “You are responsible for your actions, not what you feel” (Atwood 192). Offred takes Moira at that time’s logical counsel to avoid acting on her feelings toward Nick. It is illegal to do so, and Offred doesn’t trust Nick as yet. Moira uses rational reasoning to try to protect the women and friends she cares about in this totalitarian world.

Moira has been a model for Offred in particular. Her rebellious spirit instills hope and determination into women all around her. Moira, who appears to have escaped Gilead has inspired the other Handmaids with ambition and desire to rebel. “Nonetheless, Moira remained our fantasy. We hugged to her, she stayed with us secretly, a chuckle; she was lava underneath the surface of everyday life. Moira’s presence made the aunts less intimidating and more ridiculous. Their power was flawed”. This metaphor suggests that there is a rebellion in Gilead just below the surface. The society of Gilead appears fragile. Moira refuses to be brainwashed, and is unwilling to surrender her freedom. “Moira is like an open-sided elevator. She makes me dizzy. Already we had lost the taste for the freedom. You’d dissolve in the upper atmosphere, and there’d be no pressure to hold you together. The narrator is implying that Moira’s side is rebellious and dangerous. Elevators are a great way to get around, and it could be said that Moira started the freedom movement in the novel. She is a rebellious spirit, because she will do anything to be happy no matter what the consequences. After her second failed escape attempt, Moira is no longer rebellious. She has now become complacent with the rules she was taught. She is now frightening to me, as I hear indifference in her tone, and a complete lack of will. Has she really been robbed of something? -that was so important to them? How can I ask her to act out and live my courage if I don’t? Offred could not have the rebellious qualities that Moira had, but she was still okay with it, as long they were present. Gilead is the real winner if Moira loses them.

Moira’s character is the symbol of hope in Gilead for all women. At the end, Gilead breaks Moira and takes away the escape hopes she planted in others’ minds. Moira is a rebellious, hopeful woman who contrasts with Offred’s way of surviving in Gilead. Moira’s constant fight for freedom contrasts with Offred who chooses to obey the laws in Gilead. Offred said that throughout the novel she wished she was more similar to Moira. The screwdriver is missing, but I’m sure Moira could get it done without one. I’m Not Moira”. Offred thinks Moira has more courage than her. Offred worries about the safety of her daughter in Gilead, whereas Moira does not have to worry. Offred recalls that Moira wasn’t as shocked as she was when they found out women couldn’t hold property or money. She seemed a little giddy. As if it were something she’d expected and had now been proved right. She even looked more energetic, more determined” (Atwood 178). Moira felt validated by her perceptions and was given a new purpose with the new laws. She is now more determined to resist this new order. Moira’s determination to resist the new order was more energizing than Offred, who merely watched the changes take place. The Commander asks her for a kiss during their first encounter. Offred contemplates Moira’s suggestion to kill the Commander with a sharp lever made from toilet paper. But she later says that she doesn’t consider this. Offred’s plans for escape are never carried out, unlike Moira. Offred differs from Moira in that she does not rebel against Gilead. Instead, Offred is passive, whereas Moira is active.

Moira represents hope and courage for the narrator. Qualities that many women no longer possess. Women shouldn’t suffer alone and be forced to accept authority even in the most horrific circumstances. Offred keeps herself sane because of her memories of Moira. Moira represents the voice of logic and reason within a society which is not corrupt like most. Moira represents hope to many Handmaids and contrasts Offred’s actions in the novel. Moira is the protagonist of Margaret Atwood’s novel The Handmaids Tale. She gives the reader hope that Gilead, and women in general, will change one day. In difficult situations, people hold on to someone or something that inspires them with hope for the future.

Jane Eyre By Charlotte Bronte: A Persona In A Setting

Charlotte Bronte uses the setting in Jane Eyre to show the struggles that Jane Eyre faces. Jane Eyre’s location is a major factor in her future actions. She is constantly moving around, demonstrating her desire to live a fulfilling life and respect the social codes of nineteenth century. She wants to preserve her dignity but also knows that she must conform to the Victorian social codes. Jane Eyre’s constant struggle for permanence is manifested in the ever-changing setting.

Jane’s journey begins at Gateshead Hall, her aunt’s home, which is full of prejudice and insensitivity. Its gates are symbolic of Jane’s departure from home to live life without guidance. She departs at the crack of dawn, “whirling away to remote and mystery regions”, symbolizing a new beginning free from familial constraints (35). Her arrival in Lowood’s restrictive boarding-school begins with a winter that is “stiffened, shrouded, and chilly as death”. It mirrors how lonely it can be to adjust to the school routine. Jane discovers, over the course of her schooling, that her aesthetic needs are not met by the walls that protect her from the outside world. She must leave her routine and “seek real information” in the midst of “the perils and dangers” that surround her.

Jane’s self-fulfillment quest is encouraged by a new setting, the “quiet hills and solitude” of Thornfield where she serves as a governess. Rochester’s informality, which is a welcome change, allows Jane to speak her mind without fear of being judged. She feels content at Thornfield Hall, as Rochester is her equal. The discovery of Rochester’s first, insane wife shakes her out of complacency. As Rochester’s wife’s insanity slowly spreads, the black clouds that are cast over Thornfield and the red moon setting into the waves of the ocean, like hot cannon balls, also grow. Jane decides that she must leave Thornfield because, “the more isolated, the friendless [she] becomes, the more unsupported [she] becomes, the better [she] will feel about herself” (302). She leaves Thornfield as the sun rises, symbolizing the end of one life and the beginning of another.

Jane’s first temporary home, after leaving Thornfield and the four-road intersection, is Whitcross. This crossroads symbolizes Jane’s uncertainty and aimlessness about where her life will take her. It also represents her vulnerability, since she is financially dependent on others. Moor House is the humble home of her three cousins, and also where she settles down. It’s “very simply furnished, but comfortable” (328). Jane is able, despite Thornfield’s grandeur, to “comprehend and share this feeling”. “There were] a lot of pure and sweet pleasures” (334). She grows close to Moor House’s inhabitants and pastoral land. Jane’s final residence is at the Ferndean manor-house, where “the dark and thick wood around it was so thick” (411). The manor house, where Jane cares for Rochester, a disabled boy, is hidden within “a heavy forest frame” (412). This last dwelling represents the end of her journey and the permanence that she has sought since leaving Gateshead.

Jane Eyre’s constant movement is a reflection of her struggle to maintain her personal integrity as she searches for happiness. She is able to marry Rochester in a manor house that is secluded. This is where she learns to live for and with the things that are most important to her on earth. Her happiness is found in Rochester and her search for permanence ends when the iron gates of the forest are closed.

Philosopher’s Stone And Graveyard Book: The Representation Of Magical And Supernatural

Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone and The Graveyard Book both explore the themes and ideas of magic and the paranormal. Harry Potter tells the story of an apparently ordinary young boy who finds out he is actually a magician. Harry fights his enemies, both inside and outside of Hogwarts School of Witchcrafts & Wizardry. Nobody Owens from The Graveyard Book (also known as Bod), is raised in a unique environment by the Mr. and Ms. Owens ghosts who live in the graveyard. Silas teaches Bod about the ways of life while also protecting him against the Jacks of All Trades. The authors of both texts used magic and supernatural elements to create a hierarchy between the magical world and those outside. The Graveyard Book has a clear difference between humans and ghosts. Harry Potter also distinguishes between wizards and muggles. The characters in The Graveyard Book (Bod) and Harry Potter (Hermione) are the main protagonists in both texts. They aim to destroy the social barriers through their characters. Both texts are a mixture of Gothic literature and fantasy fiction. The authors can use these elements to cement their social hierarchy by using grotesque, fantasy and mythical elements.

Hagrid’s reaction to Harry learning that he was a wizard shows the tension between wizards. Hagrid explains to Harry that a muggle is a non-magic person like Harry. It is clear that this label shows the Wizarding Community’s view of muggles as inferior. The Dursleys also share this disdain, with Mrs. Dursley calling her witch-sister a ‘freak’ in Rowling 57. While it’s true that muggles generally don’t even know witches exist, they also reject the notion of them. The muggles are claiming the wizarding community is superior based on ignorance. In a magically charged world, these two dominant people groups, wizards versus muggles are fighting to be at the top of the hierarchy. This is similar to the real world where people compete for the top position, like the USA and the USSR during the Cold War. Or even the Liberal Party and the Labor Party. Rowling shows this social order from the point of view of wizards who are in the highest position.

Harry Potter’s wizarding community is further divided into pure-bloods or half-bloods. There are also muggle borns and squibs. Squibs are children of wizard parents who do not possess magic. Also, there is a difference between pure-bloods or half-bloods that sympathizes with muggles. Ron Weasley and Draco Weasley are both victims of this discrimination. Ron Weasley comes from pure-blooded family known for their sympathy toward muggles. Draco is a scumbag who calls Hagrid, the Weasleys family and other riff-raff on the Hogwarts train. Draco says that Harry will find out soon enough which wizarding family is better, Potter (Rowling 116) as well as referring to ‘the wrong type’ (Rowling116). Draco has a pureblood background and is anti muggle. To him, anyone who does not have a pureblood background and who holds different views is the wrong type. There’s a hint of Neo-Nazism throughout the book, as pure-blooded magicians are compared to Aryans. Muggles and those born muggles are like Jews. This separation and the placement of these groups into a social hierarchy are the wizarding equivalents of the World-System Theory, which is based around wealth and power.

Hermione’s muggle blood is a major reason why she is seen as an Outsider in Harry Potter. She doesn’t fit into the wizarding culture, yet she is also not a muggle. Bod also has the same outsider image in The Graveyard Book. He’s neither ghost or human. The Graveyard Book also depicts hierarchy, although it’s different than Harry Potter. The structure is the same. The Graveyard Book portrays three distinct societies: the humans, the ghosts and ‘The Honor Guard’ (Gaiman 282). The humans have no idea what the supernatural is like the majority muggles from Harry Potter. They also perceive hierarchy based on the fact that they are ignorant. Gaiman makes a comparison between the ignorance of humans and that of third-worlders.

The graveyard has a very distinct social structure. The Honor Guard is the highest ranking group, including Silas Lupescu and Miss Lupescu. The text makes it clear that you need to be a supernatural creature like a werewolf or vampire in order for them to accept you. There is also a ghost at the top, the Lady of the Grey. She is highly respected by the other ghosts. The general ghost population is located in the middle of this hierarchy, which can be compared to middle-class or working class people of today. Liza Hempstock is a witch-turned-ghost who was executed. Liza, the witch ghost, is shunned by her fellow ghosts for being a supernatural creature. Gaiman makes a social statement by using this ironic circumstance to highlight the hypocrisy inherent in a hierarchical society.

Hermione is an outsider to the wizarding world, as we have already stated. Hermione plays a crucial role as the story unfolds in stopping Lord Voldemort from stealing the Philosopher’s stone. She uses intelligence to unravel key information such as the riddle of the potions that they need to solve in order for them to find the Philosopher’s stone. Hermione, who is a shrewd observer, says that many of the most powerful wizards do not possess a speck of logic (Rowling 307.) Harry’s lucky because Hermione can. Michelle Fry (157) explains the importance of Hermione to break down the social barriers. Hermione solving the riddle proves that pure bloods, such as Draco, view her as less than because she’s a muggle. She proves that pure-blood wizards are not the only ones who can’t solve this problem.

In Harry Potter, there is a carnival-like atmosphere where the oppressed, both muggles and those who sympathize with them, are empowered and rise to power (Nikolajeva). They take advantage of the opportunity to destroy the notions that pure-blooded wizards are incompetent and inferior.

The Graveyard Book contains carnivalesque elements, which are evident when humans dance with ghosts the Macabray. In the upside-down world of carnival, (Nikolajeva and Hall), the human social order is reversed, as the humans accept the supernatural for one night but do not remember it afterward. Silas says that ‘there are certain things people are not allowed to talk about’ (Gaiman 153), which shows that after the dance, the social order has returned. It has a grotesque theme of ghosts and humans dancing together as seen at carnivals and in Gothic literature. The lyrics for the song “Danse Macabre”, appropriately titled by Gaiman, are a mix of Gothic and carnivalesque humor. A good example is “one will leave and one will stay and we’ll all dance the Macabray”, which has a carnivalesque tone and a Gothic feel.

The grotesque motif is a Gothic one used in Harry Potter as a way to show the hierarchy of social standing. Hall uses Hagrid, the half-giant character, to explore grotesque representations. Hagrid has a “long, shaggy beard and a wild hair” (Rowling, 50) while his eyes look like black beetles (Rowling, 50). Not only is he a Half-blood, but a Half-breed with a Giantess mother. He is also at the bottom of hierarchy. Draco describes Hagrid as a “savage”, but we all know that Hagrid’s pockets are filled with’mint Humbugs’ and ‘teabags.’ Rowling (84). He also has a bag of dog biscuits. Rowling (79). The gentle giant is a great example of this. There’s a carnivalesque element to his character. Hagrid’s grotesqueness is a cause for disdain by most of the wizarding society, just as Draco’s was. Harry Potter’s portrayal of goblins is grotesque. Rowling describes goblins as “swarthy” (78), with a “clever face, a bead pointed at the end”, (78), and having’very long feet and fingers’ (78). The goblin is associated with villainy, treachery, and grotesqueness, all of which are motifs that are synonymous with Gothic Literature. As with Hagrid, it is no surprise that goblins also occupy the lowest social rung.

Harry Potter, The Graveyard Book and other fictional worlds have a hierarchy that is similar to the real-world. They stratify people using magic and supernatural elements. This structure is emphasized by using Gothic, especially grotesque, to make clear the differences between groups. Carnival elements can be found in the text and are used to remove social barriers. Social distinctions are made between the magical and human worlds, the latter of which often denies the existence or the supernatural. There are similar class distinctions in the magical and human worlds. Harry Potter’s and The Graveyard Book’s commentary on today’s social hierarchy is a great way to learn about the unintended consequences of labeling groups or people based on their assumed value.

Works Cited

Coats, Karen. Between Horror and Humour. Neil Gaiman’s Psychic Work of the Gothic. The Gothic of Children’s Literature. Eds. Anna Jackson and Karen Coats. Taylor and Francis (2008) 77-92. Print.

Fry, Michele. New Review of Children’s Literature and Librarship 7.1 (2001), pp. 157-167. EBSCO host. Web.

Gaiman, Neil. A story about a boy who is raised in a cemetery by the ghosts of its inhabitants. London, Bloomsbury. 2009. Print. Hall, Jordana. Children’s Literature in Education. 42 (2010), 70-89. EBSCO host. Web.

Kottak, Conrad P. Cultural Anthropology: Appreciating Cultural Diversity. 15th ed. McGraw Hill Companies. New York, 2013. Print.

Nikolajeva, Maria. Harry Potter: The Secrets of Children’s Literature. Ed. Elizabeth E. Hellman. Taylor and Francis published an unnamed work in 2008. 225-241. EBSCO host. Web.

Rowling J. K. Harry Potter And The Philosopher’s Stone. London: Bloomsbury, 2014. Print.